ويكيبيديا:أصد للإنجليزية

(بالتحويل من ويكيبيديا:أصد للإنكليزية)


Consonants
IPA امثلة
b buy, cab
d die, cad
ð thy, breathe, father
giant, badge
f phi, caff
ɡ (ˈɡ)[1] guy, cag
h high, ahead
j yes, hallelujah
k chi, sky, crack
l lie, sly, gal
m my, smile, cam
n nigh, snide, ban
ŋ gang, sink, ringer
ŋɡ finger
θ thigh, math
p pie, spy, cap
r rye, try, very[2]
s sigh, mass
ʃ shy, cash, emotion
t tie, sty, cat
China, catch
v vie, have
w wye, swine
hw why[3]
z xi, zoo, has
ʒ pleasure, vision, beige[4]
Marginal consonants
x ugh, loch, Chanukah[5]
ʔ uh-oh /ˈʌʔoʊ/,
Hawaii /həˈwaɪʔiː/[6]
Vowels
IPA Traditional monophthongs R-colored vowels[7]
æ bat, bad, shall, ban ær barrow, marry
ɑː balm, father, bra ɑr bar, mar, party, starring (/ɑːr./)
ɒ bot, pod, John, doll[8] ɒr moral, forage
ɔː bawd, caught, dawn, ball, straw[9] ɔr born, for, aural (/ɔːr./)
code, boat, goal, bone, go[10] ɔər boar, four, more, oral (/oʊr./)[11]
ʊ good, foot, pull, Sunni ʊər boor, moor, tourist (/uːr./)[12]
food, lute, pool, soon, blue
ʌ bud, but, dull, gun[13] ʌr hurry, Murray
ɜr bird, myrrh, furry (also /ɝː/)[14]
ɛ bed, pet, bell, men ɛr berry, merry
fade, fate, fail, vein, pay ɛər bear, mare, Mary (/eɪr./)
ɪ bid, pit, bill, bin ɪr mirror
bead, peat, feel, mean, sea ɪər beer, mere, serious (/iːr./)
Traditional diphthongs
ride, write, file, fine, pie ɔɪ void, exploit, foil, coin, boy
out, loud, owl, down, how juː cute, hue, pew, dew[15]
Reduced vowels
ə Rosa’s, a mission ən button
i happy, serious[16] əm rhythm
ɨ, ɪ roses, emission [17] əl bottle
ʊ beautiful, curriculum ([jʊ])[18] ər perform, mercer (also /ɚ/)[14]
ɵ following, omission[19]
Stress Syllabification
IPA أَمْثِلَة IPA أَمْثِلَة
ˈ intonation /ˌɪntɵˈneɪʃən/,[20]
battleship /ˈbætəlʃɪp/[21]
. shellfish /ˈʃel.fɪʃ/, selfish /ˈself.ɨʃ/
nitrate /ˈnaɪ.treɪt/, night-rate /ˈnaɪt.reɪt/
moai /ˈmoʊ.aɪ/[22]
ˌ

هوامشعدل

  1. ^ If the two characters ˈɡ and ˈ  do not match, if the first looks like a ˈγ, then you have an issue with your default font. See Rendering issues.
  2. ^ Although the IPA symbol [r] represents a trill, /r/ is widely used instead of /ɹ/ in broad transcriptions of English.
  3. ^ /hw/ is not distinguished from /w/ in dialects with the wine-whine merger, such as RP and most varieties of GenAm.
  4. ^ A number of English words, such as genre and garage, are pronounced with either /ʒ/ or /dʒ/.
  5. ^ In most dialects, /x/ is replaced by /k/ in loch and by /h/ in Chanukah.
  6. ^ Most people pronounce the English word Hawaii without the /ʔ/ (glottal stop) that occurs in the Hawaiian word Hawai‘i.
  7. ^ In non-rhotic accents such as RP, /r/ not pronounced unless followed by a vowel. In Wikipedia articles, /ɪər/ etc. are not always distinguished from /ɪr/ etc. When they are, the long vowels may be transcribed /iːr/ etc. by analogy with vowels not followed by /r/.
  8. ^ /ɒ/ is not distinguished from /ɑː/ in dialects with the father-bother merger such as GenAm.
  9. ^ /ɔː/ is not distinguished from /ɑː/ (except before /r/) in dialects with the cot-caught merger such as some varieties of GenAm.
  10. ^ Commonly transcribed /əʊ/ or /oː/.
  11. ^ /ɔər/ is not distinguished from /ɔr/ in dialects with the horse-hoarse merger, which include most dialects of modern English.
  12. ^ /ʊər/ is not distinguished from /ɔr/ in dialects with the pour-poor merger, including many younger speakers.
  13. ^ This phoneme is not used in the northern half of England and some bordering parts of Wales. These words would take the ʊ vowel: there is no foot-strut split.
  14. ^ أ ب In some articles these are transcribed /ɝː/ and /ɚ/ when not followed by a vowel.
  15. ^ In many dialects, /juː/ is pronounced the same as /uː/ after "tongue sounds" (/t/, /d/, /s/, /z/, /n/, /θ/, and /l/) in the same syllable, so that dew /djuː/ is pronounced the same as do /duː/. In other dialects, /tj/, /dj/, /sj/ and /zj/ are pronounced /tʃ/, /dʒ/, /ʃ/ and /ʒ/, so that the first syllable in Tuesday is pronounced the same as choose[بحاجة لمصدر]
  16. ^ Pronounced /iː/ in dialects with the happy tensing, /ɪ/ in other dialects. British convention used to transcribe it with /ɪ/, but the OED and other influential dictionaries recently converted to /i/.
  17. ^ Pronounced [ə] in Australian and many US dialects, and [ɪ] in Received Pronunciation. Many speakers freely alternate between a reduced [ɪ̈] and a reduced [ə]. Many phoneticians (vd. Olive & Greenwood 1993:322) and the OED uses the pseudo-IPA symbol ɪ [1], and Merriam–Webster uses ə̇.
  18. ^ Pronounced [ʊ] in many dialects, [ə] in others. Many speakers freely alternate between a reduced [ʊ̈] and a reduced [ə]. The OED uses the pseudo-IPA symbol ʊ [2].
  19. ^ Pronounced [ə] in many dialects, and [ɵw] or [əw] before another vowel, as in cooperate. Sometimes pronounced as a full /oʊ/, especially in careful speech. (Bolinger 1989)
  20. ^ It is arguable that there is no phonemic distinction in English between primary and secondary stress (vd. Ladefoged 1993), but it is conventional to notate them as here.
  21. ^ Full vowels after a stressed syllable, such as the ship in battleship, are marked with secondary stress in some dictionaries (Merriam-Webster), but not in others (the OED). Such syllables are not actually stressed.
  22. ^ Syllables are indicated sparingly, where necessary to avoid confusion.

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