افتح القائمة الرئيسية


Consonants
IPA امثلة
‎b‏ buy, cab
‎d‏ die, cad
‎ð‏ thy, breathe, father
‎dʒ‏ giant, badge
‎f‏ phi, caff
‎ɡ‏ (‎ˈɡ‏)[1] guy, cag
‎h‏ high, ahead
‎j‏ yes, hallelujah
‎k‏ chi, sky, crack
‎l‏ lie, sly, gal
‎m‏ my, smile, cam
‎n‏ nigh, snide, ban
‎ŋ‏ gang, sink, ringer
‎ŋɡ‏ finger
‎θ‏ thigh, math
‎p‏ pie, spy, cap
‎r‏ rye, try, very[2]
‎s‏ sigh, mass
‎ʃ‏ shy, cash, emotion
‎t‏ tie, sty, cat
‎tʃ‏ China, catch
‎v‏ vie, have
‎w‏ wye, swine
‎hw‏ why[3]
‎z‏ xi, zoo, has
‎ʒ‏ pleasure, vision, beige[4]
Marginal consonants
‎x‏ ugh, loch, Chanukah[5]
‎ʔ‏ uh-oh ‎/ˈʌʔoʊ/‏,
Hawaii ‎/həˈwaɪʔiː/‏[6]
Vowels
IPA Traditional monophthongs R-colored vowels[7]
‎æ‏ bat, bad, shall, ban ‎ær‏ barrow, marry
‎ɑː‏ balm, father, bra ‎ɑr‏ bar, mar, party, starring (‎/ɑːr./‏)
‎ɒ‏ bot, pod, John, doll[8] ‎ɒr‏ moral, forage
‎ɔː‏ bawd, caught, dawn, ball, straw[9] ‎ɔr‏ born, for, aural (‎/ɔːr./‏)
‎oʊ‏ code, boat, goal, bone, go[10] ‎ɔər‏ boar, four, more, oral (‎/oʊr./‏)[11]
‎ʊ‏ good, foot, pull, Sunni ‎ʊər‏ boor, moor, tourist (‎/uːr./‏)[12]
‎uː‏ food, lute, pool, soon, blue
‎ʌ‏ bud, but, dull, gun[13] ‎ʌr‏ hurry, Murray
‎ɜr‏ bird, myrrh, furry (also ‎/ɝː/‏)[14]
‎ɛ‏ bed, pet, bell, men ‎ɛr‏ berry, merry
‎eɪ‏ fade, fate, fail, vein, pay ‎ɛər‏ bear, mare, Mary (‎/eɪr./‏)
‎ɪ‏ bid, pit, bill, bin ‎ɪr‏ mirror
‎iː‏ bead, peat, feel, mean, sea ‎ɪər‏ beer, mere, serious (‎/iːr./‏)
Traditional diphthongs
‎aɪ‏ ride, write, file, fine, pie ‎ɔɪ‏ void, exploit, foil, coin, boy
‎aʊ‏ out, loud, owl, down, how ‎juː‏ cute, hue, pew, dew[15]
Reduced vowels
‎ə‏ Rosa’s, a mission ‎ən‏ button
‎i‏ happy, serious[16] ‎əm‏ rhythm
‎ɨ‏, ɪ roses, emission [17] ‎əl‏ bottle
ʊ beautiful, curriculum (‎[jʊ]‏)[18] ‎ər‏ perform, mercer (also ‎/ɚ/‏)[14]
‎ɵ‏ following, omission[19]
Stress Syllabification
IPA أَمْثِلَة IPA أَمْثِلَة
‎ˈ‏ intonation ‎/ˌɪntɵˈneɪʃən/‏,[20]
battleship ‎/ˈbætəlʃɪp/‏[21]
‎.‏ shellfish ‎/ˈʃel.fɪʃ/‏, selfish ‎/ˈself.ɨʃ/‏
nitrate ‎/ˈnaɪ.treɪt/‏, night-rate ‎/ˈnaɪt.reɪt/‏
moai ‎/ˈmoʊ.aɪ/‏[22]
‎ˌ‏

هوامشعدل

  1. ^ If the two characters ‎ˈɡ‏ and ‎ˈ  do not match, if the first looks like a ‎ˈγ‏, then you have an issue with your default font. See Rendering issues.
  2. ^ Although the IPA symbol ‎[r]‏ represents a trill, ‎/r/‏ is widely used instead of ‎/ɹ/‏ in broad transcriptions of English.
  3. ^ ‎/hw/‏ is not distinguished from ‎/w/‏ in dialects with the wine-whine merger, such as RP and most varieties of GenAm.
  4. ^ A number of English words, such as genre and garage, are pronounced with either ‎/ʒ/‏ or ‎/dʒ/‏.
  5. ^ In most dialects, ‎/x/‏ is replaced by ‎/k/‏ in loch and by ‎/h/‏ in Chanukah.
  6. ^ Most people pronounce the English word Hawaii without the ‎/ʔ/‏ (glottal stop) that occurs in the Hawaiian word Hawai‘i.
  7. ^ In non-rhotic accents such as RP, ‎/r/‏ not pronounced unless followed by a vowel. In Wikipedia articles, ‎/ɪər/‏ etc. are not always distinguished from ‎/ɪr/‏ etc. When they are, the long vowels may be transcribed ‎/iːr/‏ etc. by analogy with vowels not followed by ‎/r/‏.
  8. ^ /‎ɒ‏/ is not distinguished from ‎/ɑː/‏ in dialects with the father-bother merger such as GenAm.
  9. ^ /‎ɔː‏/ is not distinguished from ‎/ɑː/‏ (except before ‎/r/‏) in dialects with the cot-caught merger such as some varieties of GenAm.
  10. ^ Commonly transcribed ‎/əʊ/‏ or ‎/oː/‏.
  11. ^ /‎ɔər‏/ is not distinguished from ‎/ɔr/‏ in dialects with the horse-hoarse merger, which include most dialects of modern English.
  12. ^ /‎ʊər‏/ is not distinguished from ‎/ɔr/‏ in dialects with the pour-poor merger, including many younger speakers.
  13. ^ This phoneme is not used in the northern half of England and some bordering parts of Wales. These words would take the ‎ʊ‏ vowel: there is no foot-strut split.
  14. أ ب In some articles these are transcribed ‎/ɝː/‏ and ‎/ɚ/‏ when not followed by a vowel.
  15. ^ In many dialects, ‎/juː/‏ is pronounced the same as ‎/uː/‏ after "tongue sounds" (‎/t/‏, ‎/d/‏, ‎/s/‏, ‎/z/‏, ‎/n/‏, ‎/θ/‏, and ‎/l/‏) in the same syllable, so that dew ‎/djuː/‏ is pronounced the same as do ‎/duː/‏. In other dialects, ‎/tj/‏, ‎/dj/‏, ‎/sj/‏ and ‎/zj/‏ are pronounced ‎/tʃ/‏, ‎/dʒ/‏, ‎/ʃ/‏ and ‎/ʒ/‏, so that the first syllable in Tuesday is pronounced the same as choose[بحاجة لمصدر]
  16. ^ Pronounced ‎/iː/‏ in dialects with the happy tensing, ‎/ɪ/‏ in other dialects. British convention used to transcribe it with /ɪ/, but the OED and other influential dictionaries recently converted to /i/.
  17. ^ Pronounced ‎[ə]‏ in Australian and many US dialects, and ‎[ɪ]‏ in Received Pronunciation. Many speakers freely alternate between a reduced ‎[ɪ̈]‏ and a reduced ‎[ə]‏. Many phoneticians (vd. Olive & Greenwood 1993:322) and the OED uses the pseudo-IPA symbol ɪ [1], and ميريام وبستر uses ‎ə̇‏.
  18. ^ Pronounced ‎[ʊ]‏ in many dialects, ‎[ə]‏ in others. Many speakers freely alternate between a reduced ‎[ʊ̈]‏ and a reduced ‎[ə]‏. The OED uses the pseudo-IPA symbol ʊ [2].
  19. ^ Pronounced ‎[ə]‏ in many dialects, and ‎[ɵw]‏ or ‎[əw]‏ before another vowel, as in cooperate. Sometimes pronounced as a full ‎/oʊ/‏, especially in careful speech. (Bolinger 1989)
  20. ^ It is arguable that there is no phonemic distinction in English between primary and secondary stress (vd. Ladefoged 1993), but it is conventional to notate them as here.
  21. ^ Full vowels after a stressed syllable, such as the ship in battleship, are marked with secondary stress in some dictionaries (Merriam-Webster), but not in others (the OED). Such syllables are not actually stressed.
  22. ^ Syllables are indicated sparingly, where necessary to avoid confusion.

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