افتح القائمة الرئيسية

هندسة سياسية

في العلوم السياسية، مصطلح الهندسة السياسية يشير إلى تصميم المؤسسات السياسية في مجتمع ما وكثيرا ما يتعلق باستخدام أوراق رسمية مثل قوانين أو استفتاءات أو مراسيم أو ما إلى ذلك في محاولة لتحقيق تأثير مطلوب.[1][2][3]

المعايير والقيود المستخدمتان في هذا التصميم تختلفان اعتمادا على أساليب الاستمثال المستخدمة. وعادة الأنظمة السياسية الديمقراطية تعتبر غير صالحة لتكون موضوعات لمناهج الهندسة السياسية،[4][5] وذلك لأن محاولة تطبيق الهندسة السياسية في حالات ذات أساليب ومعايير غير مثالية قد تحقق نتائج كاثرية أحيانا، كما في حال محاولة هندسة المشهد السياسي في دولة كانت ديموقراطية سابقا بطريقة انقلاب مثلا. المجلس العسكري اليوناني (من 1967 إلى 1974) استعمل الهندسة السياسية لحل النظام الديموقراطي في اليونان بنتائج مأساوية. وقد تتوظف الهندسة السياسية في تصميم عملية تصويت بديلية داخل نظام ديموقراطي.[6]

في الساحة الاجتماعية نظير للهندسة السياسية هي الهندسة الاجتماعية.

المراجععدل

  1. ^ Political Engineering: The Design of Institutions, Dr. Jeffrey R. Lax, Department of Politics, New York University Quote: "The product of such analysis, which is reflected in the title of this course, is normative: To design institutions that meet certain “engineering” specifications and, therefore, may be superior to institutions that, because they arose more haphazardly, may not satisfy these specifications. Like engineering in the natural sciences, which translates theory (e.g., from physics) into practical design (e.g., a bridge), engineering in the social sciences translates rational-choice analysis into the design of better political-economic-social institutions." and "Informed answers to these questions require that we set forth criteria—the specifications of the engineer—for evaluating institutions. In this course, we will invoke such criteria as efficiency, equitability, freedom from certain paradoxes, etc. Particular emphasis will be placed on making institutions as invulnerable as possible to manipulation, which will be subjected to theoretical analysis and illustrated through a series of case studies" نسخة محفوظة 03 يونيو 2016 على موقع واي باك مشين.
  2. ^ James T. Myers؛ Jürgen Domes؛ Erik Von Groeling (1 December 1995). Chinese Politics: Documents and Analysis : Fall of Hua Kuo-Feng (1980) to the Twelfth Party Congress (1982). Univ of South Carolina Press. صفحة 163. ISBN 978-1-57003-063-5. اطلع عليه بتاريخ 06 مارس 2013. This prompted Lin Biao decision to take action to assassinate Chairman Mao Zedong and engineer an armed coup d'etat. 
  3. ^ Francis Augustin Akindès (2004). The Roots of the MilitaryPolitical Crises in Côte d'Ivoire. Nordic Africa Institute. صفحات 7–. ISBN 978-91-7106-531-5. اطلع عليه بتاريخ 06 مارس 2013. Houphouet Boigny left behind a political legacy, a leadership style, or rather a form of political engineering, known as Houphouetism 
  4. ^ Specimen of Political engineering: The Pioneer, 2002 Quote: "The ISI's political department has long been known to indulge in "political engineering" (a decent-sounding nomenclature for the dirty tricks it indulges in) having sent former prime minister Zulfikar Ali Bhutto to the gallows and helped overthrow both Ms Benazir Bhutto and former Prime Minister Nawaz Sharif and bring General Musharraf to power in a bloodless coup." نسخة محفوظة 14 مارس 2008 على موقع واي باك مشين.
  5. ^ Political Engineering of Parties and Party Systems, Benjamin Reilly Ph.D. Quote: "Because political parties in theory represent the political expression of underlying societal cleavages (Lipset and Rokkan 1967), parties and party systems have not usually been thought to be amenable to overt political engineering. While some authoritarian states have attempted to control the development of their party system (e.g. the mandated ‘two-party’ or ‘threeparty’ systems that existed under military rule in Nigeria and Indonesia respectively, or 1 For what is still the best discussion of ethnic parties and party systems, see Horowitz 1985. 2 See, for example, Sartori 1994, Diamond 1999, Reynolds 2002. 3 the ‘no-party’ system that currently exists in Uganda), most democracies allow parties to develop freely. Because of this, parties are generally understood to remain beyond the reach of formal political engineering in most circumstances. Recent years, however, have seen some ambitious attempts to influence the development of party systems in a range of ethnically-diverse countries such as Indonesia, Nigeria, the Philippines, Bosnia, Kosovo, and Papua New Guinea. In the discussion of these and other cases which follows, this paper presents an initial survey of some the different institutional and political strategies for encouraging the development of broad, crossregional or multi-ethnic parties and party systems that have been used around the world."[وصلة مكسورة]
  6. ^ Reilly, B., 1997. Preferential voting and political engineering: A comparative study. Journal of Commonwealth & Comparative Politics, 35(1), pp.1-19. doi: 10.1080/14662049708447736 Archived page:https://web.archive.org/web/20080314154825/http://findarticles.com/p/articles/mi_hb3504/is_199703/ai_n8303088 نسخة محفوظة 26 مايو 2019 على موقع واي باك مشين.