افتح القائمة الرئيسية

نظرية أسطورة يسوع

نظرية أسطورة يسوع[1] أو نظرية تاريخية يسوع[2] هي الافتراض القائل بأن يسوع الناصري لم يكن موجودًا، أو إذا كان، فإنه لم يقم بأي دور في تأسيس المسيحية، ولا فيما يتعلق بالروايات الأناجيل.[3][4][5] تخالف نظرية أسطورة يسوع وجهة النظر التاريخية السائدة، ورغم اشتمال الأناجيل على العديد من العناصر الخرافية أو الأسطورية، إلا أن هذه العناصر توضيحات دينية أضيفت إلى السيرة الذاتية للشخصية التاريخية.[6]

يعد برونو باور أول عالم ينكر وجود يسوع، ولكن تأثير رأيه كان هامشيًا على السياق العام لنظرة العلماء وقتها.[7] أما اليوم، فيرى الناقدون لوجود يسوع، أنه على أفضل تقدير كان وجوده غير مؤثر.[8] لم تبق أي مرويات لشاهدي العيان، رغم وجود العديد من المؤلفين في ذلك الوقت.[9] رفض هؤلاء العلماء رسائل بولس لأنها، بصرف النظر أن هناك عدد قليل من المقاطع تم زياداتها، لا تحتوي على إشارات إلى يسوع الأرضي الذي عاش في الجسد. وهناك غياب تام لأي معلومات عن سيرته الذاتية المفصلة التي يمكن توقعها إذا ما كان يسوع معاصرًا لبولس.[10] لا يمكن اعتبار الأناجيل القانونية والمواد الأبوكريفية الأخرى مصادرًا مستقلة، بل من المحتمل أنها جميعًا مستقاة من راوية خيالية أصلية وحيدة.[11][12] كذلك لا تحتوى روايات بداية القرن الثاني الميلادي الرومانية إلا على دلائل بسيطة للغاية على وجود يسوع،[13][14] إلا أنها من غير المضمون استقلاليتها عن المصادر المسيحية.[15][16][17] يعتبر المنكرون لوجود يسوع قلة الدلائل على وجوده سببًا كافيًا للتشكيك في وجوده،[18][19] والبعض الآخر يذهب أبعد من ذلك، فيستشهدون بأدلة مختلفة لإظهار أن المسيحية لها جذور توفيقية أو أسطورية. وبالتالي، لا ينبغي أن ينظر إلى يسوع التاريخي باعتباره مؤسس الدين، حتى ولو كان موجودًا.[20][21][22][23]

في الدراسات الحديثة، تعد نظرية أسطورة يسوع نظرية هامشية، ولكنها مقبولة بين عدد قليل من الأكاديميين، ممن وصفهم روبرت برايس بمن يحملون وجهة نظر «يسوع اللاأدرية»، في حين يذهب آخرون أبعد من ذلك ويتمسكون بوجهة نظر «إنكار يسوع».[24][25][26][27] يقول بعض العلماء أن هناك عددًا معقولاً من اليواسيع الذين من المحتمل أنهم كانوا موجودين، ولكن دون تأكيد على أيّهم كان يسوع التاريخي.[28][29][30] ويقول آخرون أن يسوع قد عاش في وقت أسبق مما هو معروف، في ماض بعيد يُتذّكر بالكاد.[31][32]

وعلى الرغم من هذا، لا يزال هناك توافقًا قويًا في الدراسات التوراتية النقدية التاريخية على حياة يسوع التاريخي في القرن الأول الميلادي في فلسطين الرومانية.[33][34][35][36][37][38][39] ويختلف العلماء حول تاريخية فترات محددة مذكورة في روايات الكتاب المقدس حول يسوع.[40] إلا أن هناك حدثين متوافق عليهما تقريبًا تاريخيًا، وهما معمودية يسوع على يد يوحنا المعمدان، وصلبه بأمر الحاكم الروماني بيلاطس البنطي.[41][42][43]

انظر أيضًاعدل

المراجععدل

  1. ^ Maurice Casey, Jesus: Evidence and Argument or Mythicist Myths?, Bloomsbury T&T Clark, 2014.
  2. ^ Lataster، Raphael (2015). "Questioning the Plausibility of Jesus Ahistoricity Theories — A Brief Pseudo-Bayesian Metacritique of the Sources". The Intermountain West Journal of Religious Studies. 6:1. 
  3. ^ Mitchell، Logan (1842). The Christian mythology unveiled, lectures. Cousins. صفحة 151. Jesus Christ in the New Testament, has no reference whatever to any event that ever did in reality take place upon this globe; or to any personages that ever in truth existed: and that the whole is an astronomical allegory, or parable, having invariably a primary and sacred allusion to the sun, and his passage through the signs of the zodiac; or a verbal representation of the phenomena of the solar year and seasons. (Image of Title page & p. 151 at Google Books) 
  4. ^ Bart Ehrman, Did Jesus Exist? Harper Collins, 2012, p. 12, ""In simpler terms, the historical Jesus did not exist . Or if he did, he had virtually nothing to do with the founding of Christianity." further quoting as authoritative the fuller definition provided by Earl Doherty in Jesus: Neither God Nor Man. Age of Reason, 2009, pp. vii-viii: it is "the theory that no historical Jesus worthy of the name existed, that Christianity began with a belief in a spiritual, mythical figure, that the Gospels are essentially allegory and fiction, and that no single identifiable person lay at the root of the Galilean preaching tradition."
  5. ^ Carrier، Richard (2014). On the Historicity of Jesus: Why We Might Have Reason for Doubt. Sheffield Phoenix Press Limited. صفحة 52. ISBN 978-1-909697-49-2. [T]he basic thesis of every competent mythologist, then and now, has always been that Jesus was originally a god just like any other god (properly speaking, a demigod in pagan terms; an archangel in Jewish terms; in either sense, a deity), who was later historicized.  نسخة محفوظة 11 يونيو 2019 على موقع واي باك مشين.
  6. ^ Theissen & Merz 1998, pp. 93-118.
  7. ^ Voorst، Robert Van (2000). Jesus Outside the New Testament: An Introduction to the Ancient Evidence. Wm. B. Eerdmans Publishing. صفحة 9. ISBN 978-0-8028-4368-5. Bauer’s views of Christian origins ...gained no lasting following or influence on subsequent scholarship, especially in the mainstream. 
  8. ^ Evans، Craig A. (26 September 2008). Fabricating Jesus: How Modern Scholars Distort the Gospels. InterVarsity Press. صفحة 25. ISBN 978-0-8308-3355-9. [R. M.] Price thinks the evidence is so weak for the historical Jesus that we cannot know anything certain or meaningful about him. He is even willing to entertain the possibility that there never was a historical Jesus. 
  9. ^ Voorst، Robert Van (2000). Jesus Outside the New Testament: An Introduction to the Ancient Evidence. Wm. B. Eerdmans Publishing. صفحة 69 n. 120. ISBN 978-0-8028-4368-5. Those who, over the last two hundred years, have doubted the existence of Jesus have argued that the lack of contemporary corroboration of Jesus by classical authors is a main indication that he did not exist. (See, e.g., The Existence of Christ Disproved (London: Heatherington, 1841) 214. More recently, see Michael Martin, The Evidence against Christianity (Philadelphia: Temple University Press. 1991)) 
  10. ^ Eddy، Paul Rhodes؛ Boyd، Gregory A. (1 August 2007). The Jesus Legend: A Case for the Historical Reliability of the Synoptic Jesus Tradition. Baker Academic. صفحة 202. ISBN 978-0-8010-3114-4. [Paul and Jesus among the Skeptics - Paul’s Lack of Historical Information] While New Testament scholars agree that Paul has relatively little to say about the life and ministry of Jesus, most grant that Paul viewed Jesus as a recent contemporary. The most extreme legendary-Jesus theorists, however— particularly the Christ myth theorists—deny this. They argue that nothing in Paul’s letters indicates that he believed Jesus was a contemporary of his. Rather, they contend, the Jesus of Paul’s theology is a savior figure patterned after similar figures within ancient mystery religions. According to the theory, Paul believed that Christ entered the world at some point in the distant past—or that he existed only in a transcendent mythical realm—and died to defeat evil powers and redeem humanity. Only later was Jesus remythologized as a Jewish contemporary. 
  11. ^ Voorst، Robert Van (2000). Jesus Outside the New Testament: An Introduction to the Ancient Evidence. Wm. B. Eerdmans Publishing. صفحة 9. ISBN 978-0-8028-4368-5. [Bruno Bauer] denied the value of the New Testament, especially the Gospels and Paul’s letters, in establishing the existence of Jesus. 
  12. ^ Eddy، Paul Rhodes؛ Boyd، Gregory A. (1 August 2007). The Jesus Legend: A Case for the Historical Reliability of the Synoptic Jesus Tradition. Baker Academic. صفحة 163. ISBN 978-0-8010-3114-4. Christ myth theorists argue that Paul views Jesus as a cosmic savior figure, along the lines of a mystery-religion deity, not a historical person in the recent past. They argue that it was only later, when the Gospels were written, that a fictitious historical narrative was imposed on this mythical cosmic savior figure. 
  13. ^ Voorst، Robert Van (2000). Jesus Outside the New Testament: An Introduction to the Ancient Evidence. Wm. B. Eerdmans Publishing. صفحة 9. ISBN 978-0-8028-4368-5. [Bruno Bauer] argued that the lack of mention of Jesus in non-Christian writings of the first century shows that Jesus did not exist. Neither do the few mentions of Jesus by Roman writers in the early second century establish his existence. 
  14. ^ Eddy، Paul Rhodes؛ Boyd، Gregory A. (1 August 2007). The Jesus Legend: A Case for the Historical Reliability of the Synoptic Jesus Tradition. Baker Academic. صفحة 165. ISBN 978-0-8010-3114-4. [Some Christ myth theorists] make much of the claim that there is little or no credible information about the historical Jesus to be found in first—and second—century non-Christian sources or in Paul, the earliest Christian source. Surely if a miracle-working prophet like the Jesus of the Gospels actually existed, it is argued, Paul and pagan contemporaries would have mentioned his feats and his teachings. Instead, they argue, we find a virtual silence. 
  15. ^ Eddy، Paul Rhodes؛ Boyd، Gregory A. (1 August 2007). The Jesus Legend: A Case for the Historical Reliability of the Synoptic Jesus Tradition. Baker Academic. صفحة 163. ISBN 978-0-8010-3114-4. Scholars who fall within the legendary-Jesus spectrum—especially the Christ myth theorists—typically argue that there is little-to-no independent information regarding a historical Jesus to be found in early non-Christian sources. 
  16. ^ Voorst، Robert Van (2000). Jesus Outside the New Testament: An Introduction to the Ancient Evidence. Wm. B. Eerdmans Publishing. صفحة 13. ISBN 978-0-8028-4368-5. [Per Jesus] Wells argues, we need independent corroboration from other, “objective” sources to affirm his existence. He [Wells] minutely examines these proposed other sources, from Tacitus to Talmud, and finds that they contain no independent traditions about Jesus. Therefore, they are not admissible [evidence]. 
  17. ^ Lataster، Raphael (2015). "Questioning the Plausibility of Jesus Ahistoricity Theories — A Brief Pseudo-Bayesian Metacritique of the Sources". The Intermountain West Journal of Religious Studies. 6:1: 68. Richard Carrier also raises the possibility (and perhaps the need to be cautious) that all sources dated after the Gospel of Mark could have been tainted by it, and that this simply cannot be ruled out. 
  18. ^ Eddy، Paul Rhodes؛ Boyd، Gregory A. (1 August 2007). The Jesus Legend: A Case for the Historical Reliability of the Synoptic Jesus Tradition. Baker Academic. صفحة 365 n. 3. ISBN 978-0-8010-3114-4. As Robert Price puts it, “A heavy burden of proof rests on anyone who would vindicate the [canonical Gospels’] material as genuine.” (...this sort of radical methodological skepticism has led Price to a “Jesus agnosticism”—he is uncertain whether there ever was a historical Jesus.) 
  19. ^ Lataster، Raphael (2015). "Questioning the Plausibility of Jesus Ahistoricity Theories — A Brief Pseudo-Bayesian Metacritique of the Sources". The Intermountain West Journal of Religious Studies. 6:1: 91. Price speculates that the sources should point historical Jesus scholars in the direction of “complete agnosticism” 
  20. ^ Voorst، Robert Van (2000). Jesus Outside the New Testament: An Introduction to the Ancient Evidence. Wm. B. Eerdmans Publishing. صفحة 9. ISBN 978-0-8028-4368-5. 
  21. ^ Bromiley، Geoffrey W. (1995). "Jesus Christ". The International Standard Bible Encyclopedia. 2. Wm. B. Eerdmans Publishing. صفحة 1034. ISBN 978-0-8028-3782-0. 
  22. ^ Eddy، Paul Rhodes؛ Boyd، Gregory A. (1 August 2007). The Jesus Legend: A Case for the Historical Reliability of the Synoptic Jesus Tradition. Baker Academic. صفحة 137. ISBN 978-0-8010-3114-4. Robert Price argues that the ancient Mediterranean world “was hip-deep in religions centering on the death and resurrection of a savior god.” He then catalogs a wide variety of examples to explain the rise of the Christ cult through Paul—including the gods Baal, Tammuz/Dumuzi, Osiris, Attis, Dionysus, Mithras, and even the Corn King. From these he concludes that the Christ cult formed by Paul was “a Mystery cult” pure and simple. 
  23. ^ Lataster، Raphael (December 2014). "Richard Carrier: On the Historicity of Jesus: Why We Might Have Reason for Doubt. Sheffield: Sheffield Phoenix Press, 2014; pp. xiv + 696.". Journal of Religious History. 38 (4): 614–616. doi:10.1111/1467-9809.12219. [Richard Carrier's hypothesis of ‘minimal mythicism’], highly influenced by the work of Earl Doherty, states that Jesus was initially believed to be a celestial figure, who came to be historicised over time. 
  24. ^ "Hector Avalos: Who was the historical Jesus?". Ames Tribune. GateHouse Media. Mar 2, 2013. مؤرشف من الأصل في 24 يوليو 2018. اطلع عليه بتاريخ 28 أغسطس 2016. [ Hector Avalos, professor of Religious Studies at Iowa State University] My own opinion, as an academic biblical scholar, is that there is not enough evidence to settle the question one way or the other. I am an agnostic about the existence of the historical Jesus. A main problem continues to be the lack of documentation from the time of Jesus to establish his existence definitively. Jesus is supposed to have lived around the year 30. But there is no mention of him anywhere in any actual document from his own time or from the entire first century. 
  25. ^ Price، Robert M. Deconstructing Jesus. Prometheus Books, Publishers. صفحة 17. ISBN 978-1-61592-120-1. Generations of Rationalists and freethinkers have held that Jesus Christ corresponds to no historical character: There never was a Jesus of Nazareth. We might call this categorical denial “Jesus atheism.” What I am describing is something different, a “Jesus agnosticism.” There may have been a Jesus on earth in the past, but the state of the evidence is so ambiguous that we can never be sure what this figure was like or, indeed, whether there was such a person. 
  26. ^ Dr. Richard Carrier. "Questioning the Historicity of Jesus". Strange Notions. Brandon Vogt. مؤرشف من الأصل في 27 أبريل 2019. اطلع عليه بتاريخ 06 أبريل 2016. The hypothesis that Jesus never really existed has started to gain more credibility in the expert community. Some now agree historicity agnosticism is warranted, including Arthur Droge (professor of early Christianity at UCSD), Kurt Noll (associate professor of religion at Brandon University), and Thomas Thompson (renowned professor of theology, emeritus, at the University of Copenhagen). Others are even more certain historicity is doubtful, including Thomas Brodie (director emeritus of the Dominican Biblical Centre at the University of Limerick, Ireland), Robert Price (who has two Ph.D.’s from Drew University, in theology and New Testament studies), and myself (I have a Ph.D. in ancient history from Columbia University and have several peer reviewed articles on the subject). Still others, like Philip Davies (professor of biblical studies, emeritus, at the University of Sheffield), disagree with the hypothesis but admit it is respectable enough to deserve consideration. 
  27. ^ Lataster، Raphael (29 March 2016). "IT'S OFFICIAL: WE CAN NOW DOUBT JESUS' HISTORICAL EXISTENCE". Think. 15 (43): 65–79. doi:10.1017/s1477175616000117. Think, Volume 15, Issue 43, Summer 2016, Published online by Cambridge University Press 
  28. ^ Robertson، Archibald (1946). Jesus: Myth or History?. Thinker's Library, No. 110. London: Watts & Co. صفحات 99–100. The myth theory as stated by J. M. Robertson does not exclude the possibility of an historical Jesus. “A teacher or teachers named Jesus” may have uttered some of the Gospel sayings “at various periods.” The Jesus ben-Pandera of the Talmud may have led a movement round which the survivals of an ancient solar or other cult gradually clustered. 
  29. ^ Price، Robert M. (December 31, 1999). "Of Myth and Men: A Closer Look at the Originators of the Major Religions - What Did They Really Say and Do?". Free Inquiry magazine. 20 (1). 
  30. ^ Is This Not the Carpenter?: The Question of the Historicity of the Figure of Jesus, Ed. By Thomas L. Thompson and Thomas S. Verenna, 2012
  31. ^ Price، Robert M. (4 February 2010). "Jesus at the Vanishing Point". In James K. Beilby. The Historical Jesus: Five Views. Paul Rhodes Eddy. InterVarsity Press. صفحة 65. ISBN 978-0-8308-7853-6. Some mythicists (the early G. A. Wells and Alvar Ellegard) thought that the first Christians had in mind Jesus who had lived as a historical figure, just not of the recent past, much as the average Greek believed Hercules and Achilles really lived somewhere back there in the past. 
  32. ^ Price، Robert M. (2011). The Christ-Myth Theory and Its Problems. American Atheist Press. صفحات 33, 387f. ISBN 978-1-57884-017-5. 
  33. ^ James D. G. Dunn "Paul's understanding of the death of Jesus" in Sacrifice and Redemption edited by S. W. Sykes (Dec 3, 2007) Cambridge University Press ISBN 0-521-04460-X pages 35-36
  34. ^ Jesus Now and Then by Richard A. Burridge and Graham Gould (Apr 1, 2004) ISBN 0-8028-0977-4 page 34
  35. ^ Jesus by Michael Grant 2004 ISBN 1-898799-88-1 page 200
  36. ^ The Gospels and Jesus by Graham Stanton, 1989 ISBN 0-19-213241-5 Oxford University Press, page 145
  37. ^ Robert E. Van Voorst Jesus Outside the New Testament: An Introduction to the Ancient Evidence Eerdmans Publishing, 2000. ISBN 0-8028-4368-9 page 16
  38. ^ Did Jesus Exist?:The Historical Argument for Jesus of Nazareth. HarperCollins, USA. 2012. ISBN 978-0-06-220460-8. 
  39. ^ B. Ehrman, 2011 Forged : writing in the name of God ISBN 978-0-06-207863-6. page 285
  40. ^ Jesus as a Figure in History: How Modern Historians View the Man from Galilee by Mark Allan Powell 1998 ISBN 0-664-25703-8 page 181
  41. ^ Jesus Remembered by James D. G. Dunn 2003 ISBN 0-8028-3931-2 page 339 states of baptism and crucifixion that these "two facts in the life of Jesus command almost universal assent".
  42. ^ Prophet and Teacher: An Introduction to the Historical Jesus by William R. Herzog (4 Jul 2005) ISBN 0-664-22528-4 pages 1-6
  43. ^ Crossan, John Dominic (1995). Jesus: A Revolutionary Biography. HarperOne. صفحة 145. ISBN 0-06-061662-8. That he was crucified is as sure as anything historical can ever be, since both Josephus and Tacitus...agree with the Christian accounts on at least that basic fact. 

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