افتح القائمة الرئيسية
Other languages square icon.svg
لا يزال النص الموجود في هذه الصفحة في مرحلة الترجمة إلى العربية. إذا كنت تعرف اللغة المستعملة، لا تتردد في الترجمة. (أبريل 2019)

وقعت معركة كيلي في 1299 بين المغول من خانية الجاغطاي و سلطنة دلهي. المغول بقيادة قتلغ خواجه الذي غزا الهند وعزم علي قهر دلهي. عندما أقاموا في كيلي بالقرب من دلهي، قاد سلطان دلهي علاء الدين الخلجي جيشا للتحقق من تقدمهم.

معركة كيلي
جزء من الغزو المغولي للهند
معلومات عامة
التاريخ 1299
الموقع كيلي بالقرب من دلهي
28°39′16″N 77°13′51″E / 28.65456°N 77.23090°E / 28.65456; 77.23090إحداثيات: 28°39′16″N 77°13′51″E / 28.65456°N 77.23090°E / 28.65456; 77.23090
النتيجة
المتحاربون
خانية الجاغطاي سلطنة دلهي
القادة
* قتلغ خواجه
  • Hiljak
  • Tamar Bugha
  • Targhi
* علاء الدين الخلجي
القوة
100,000-200,000
الخسائر
خسائر كبيرة خسائر كبيرة
خطأ لوا في وحدة:Location_map على السطر 423: القيمة "Erreur" المقدمه لـ longitude غير صالحة.

هاجم ظفر خان (جنرال علاء الدين) وحدة مغولية يقودها الهجلك دون إذن علاء الدين. خدع المغول ظفر خان في متابعتهم بعيدا عن معسكر علاء الدين، ثم نصبوا كمينا لوحدته. وقبل وفاته، تمكن ظفر خان من إلحاق خسائر فادحة بجيش المغول. قرر المغول الانسحاب بعد يومين.

الخلفيةعدل

وقد حكم سلطنة دلهي علاء الدين الخلجي الذي كان قد أخذ عرش دلهي بعد اغتيال عمه في 1296. تسيطر خانات الجاغطاي على آسيا الوسطى، وقائدها منذ عقد 1280 كان دووا خان خان الذي كان الرجل الثاني تحت قيادة كايدو. كان دوا نشطا في أفغانستان، وحاول توسيع قاعدة المغول إلى الهند. حاكم نيغوداري عبد الله، الذي كان ابن حفيد جغطاي خان الكبير، غزا البنجاب مع قوته في 1292، ولكن الحرس المتقدم له تحت قيادة أولغو هزم وسجن بواسطة جلال الدين الخلجي (السلطان الذي سبق علاء الدين). حوالي 4000 من الجنود المغول (يسمون المغل في دلهي) استسلموا واعتنقوا الإسلام. الضاحية التي كانوا يعيشون فيها سميت نسبة لهم مغلبورا. وتعرضت سلطنة دلهي للضرب عدة مرات في 1296-1297. المغول بعد ذلك غزوا مرارا شمال الهند. في مناسبتين على الأقل، جاءوا بقوة.

خلال حكم علاء الدين، اقتحم المغولي نويان كادار البنجاب في شتاء 1297-98. وقد هزم وأرغم على الانسحاب من قبل جنرال علاء الدين أولوغ خان . وقد احبط جنرال علاء الدين ظفر خان الغزو المغولي الثاني بقيادة سالدي. بعد هذه الهزيمة المهينة، شن المغول غزو ثالث، مع الاستعدادات الكاملة، التي تنوي غزو الهند [1]

المسيرة المغوليةعدل

في أواخر عام 1299 ، أرسل دووا حاكم المغول التشاجاتاي خانات ابنه قتلغ خواجه ليغزو دلهي. كان يهدف المغول إلى قهر وحكم سلطنة دلهي، وليس مجرد وليس مجرد غارة عليه ا. ولذلك، خلال مسيرتهم الطويلة التي استمرت 6 أشهر في الهند، لم يلجأوا إلى نهب المدن وتدمير الحصون.[2] خلال تلك الليالي، تعرضوا للمضايقة من قبل جنرالات دلهي المنتشرين في مراكز الحدود مثل مثل ملتان وسمانا. المغول أرادوا الحفاظ على طاقتهم في المعركة للاستيلاء على دلهي، وتجنب المواجهات مع هؤلاء الجنرالات. [3] أرسل الجنرال ظفر خان -الذي كان في مكان يدعى كوهرام- رسولا ودعا قتلغ خواجا إلى معركة. ومع ذلك، رفض قتلغ العرض، معلنا أن "الملوك يحاربون الملوك فقط". وطلب من ظفر أن يحارب تحت راية سيده علاء الدين في دلهي.[2]

عسكر المغول في كيلي، وهو مكان يقع على بعد حوالي 10 كم من ضواحي دلهي.[2] ومع وصول أخبار قدومهم إلى المنطقة المحيطة، بدأ الناس من المناطق المجاورة في الانتقال إلى سلامة مدينة دلهي المحصنة. أصبحت الشوارع والأسواق ومساجد المدينة مكتظة.وقد قطع المغول القوافل التجارية المتجهة إلى دلهي. ونتيجة لذلك، ارتفعت أسعار السلع الأساسية في دلهي زيادة كبيرة، مما تسبب في محنة للجمهور المحلي. [3]

استعدادات علاء الدينعدل

Alauddin seems to have received the news of Mongol invasion only after the invaders had crossed the Indus River. According to the 14th century chronicler Isami, he had only 1–2 weeks to prepare for the battle.[4] He immediately sent messages to the various provincial governors, asking them to send reinforcements to Delhi.[5]

Alauddin set up a military camp near Siri, on the banks of the Yamuna river, and summoned his officers. Alaul Mulk, his uncle and the kotwal of Delhi, advised him to resort to diplomacy and negotiations, instead of risking his kingdom.[4] Alauddin rejected the advice, arguing that if he showed weakness, the general public and the warriors will lose their respect for him. He publicly announced his intention to march to Kili and fight with the Mongols.[4]

Alauddin made Alaul Malik the incharge of Delhi, ordering him to hand over the keys of the palace gates to the victor of the battle. After Alauddin departed for Siri, Alaul Mulk closed all the gates of Delhi except the Badaun Gate. The Badaun Gate was kept open for flight to the Doab, in case of Alauddin's defeat.[4]

The armiesعدل

Mongol armyعدل

The 14th century writer Ziauddin Barani gives the strength of the Mongol army as 100,000 at one place in his chronicle, and as 200,000 at another place.[5] Historian Banarsi Prasad Saksena finds this figure doubtful, arguing that it would have been hard for Qutlugh Khwaja to find provisions for such a large army during its journey to India.[4]

  1. The left wing, commanded by Hijlak (or Hajlak)
  2. The centre wing, commanded by Qutlugh Khwaja
  3. The right wing, commanded by Tamar Bugha
  4. A unit of 10,000 soldiers hiding in ambush, commanded by Targhi

Delhi armyعدل

According to the 16th century historian Firishta, the Delhi army included 300,000 horses and 2,700 elephants. Historian Kishori Saran Lal finds this figure inflated.[5]

The Delhi army was organized into five major divisions:[6]

  1. The left wing, commanded by Nusrat Khan
  2. The right wing, commanded by Hizabruddin Zafar Khan and supported by the Hindu warriors
  3. The centre unit, commanded by Alauddin
  4. A unit commanded by Akat Khan, placed in front of Alauddin's unit
  5. A unit commanded by Ulugh Khan, placed at the back of Nusrat Khan's unit for reinforcements

The Delhi army stretched over several miles, making it difficult for Alauddin to control it centrally.[6] Therefore, he issued a strict order that no officer was to move from their position without his instructions: the punishment for the violation of this order would be beheading.[7]

The 14th century chronicler Isami mentions that before the battle, Qutlugh Khwaja sent four envoys to Alauddin, declaring that such an army was unprecedented in Hindustan. He requested Alauddin to allow his envoys to go around the Delhi army's camp, and inquire the names of his chief officers. Alauddin granted his permission, and the envoys reported back to Qutlugh Khwaja.[7]

The Battleعدل

The battle site at Kili was bounded by the Yamuna River on one side, and a bushland on the other.[6]

Zafar khan's deathعدل

Alauddin had relatively little time to prepare for the battle, and therefore, he wanted to delay the battle. He expected more units to arrive from the east. He also hoped that a delay would cause the already-tired Mongols to fall short of provisions, and retreat. However, Alauddin's general Zafar Khan attacked Hijlak's unit without Alauddin's permission.[7]

Hijlak's unit feigned retreat, which was a common Mongol strategy. Zafar Khan followed the enemy soldiers rapidly, causing his foot soldiers to be left behind. Even his cavalry had trouble keeping up with his pace. After following Hijlak's army for 18 karohs (approximately 55 km), he realized that he had only 1,000 horsemen left with him. Meanwhile, Targhi's Mongol unit had covered an area of 3 km behind him, blocking his return to Alauddin's camp.[4] Alauddin did not send any unit in his support. According to the 17th century historian Hajiuddabir's Zafarul-vali, Ulugh Khan maintained an ill-will against Zafar Khan, and therefore, did not lead his reinforcement division to support Zafar Khan.[8]

Zafar Khan consulted his officers Usman Akhur-beg, Usman Yaghan, Ali Shah Rana-i-Pil and others. They realized that they would not be able to return, and even if they did, Alauddin would punish them for not following his orders and for cowardice. Therefore, they decided to die fighting.[9][8] According to Ziauddin Barani's Tarikh-i-Firuz Shahi, Qutlugh Khwaja offered Zafar an opportunity to surrender, promising to take him to the Chagatai Khanate, where he would be treated more honourably than at the Delhi court. However, Zafar Khan refused this offer.[10]

According to Isami, Zafar Khan and his companions managed to kill 5,000 Mongols, while losing only 800. After this, Zafar Khan put up a last stand with his 200 surviving soldiers. After his horse was cut down, he fought on foot,[11] and engaged in a hand-to-hand combat with Hijlak.[12] He was killed by an arrow that bypassed his armour and pierced his heart.[9]

The Mongol retreatعدل

Zafar khan's son Diler Khan also led a charge against the Mongols, forcing Tamar Bugha to fall back. He pursued the retreating Mongol army, whose soldiers showered arrows as they retreated. The Mongols also launched an attack at the centre of the Delhi army, which was repulsed by Alauddin's division, leading to the death of a large number of Mongol soldiers.[8]

Zafar Khan's death had also caused despair among the Delhi officers. The next morning, Alauddin's officers advised him to retreat to Delhi, and fight from the security of the fort. Alauddin rejected the advice, arguing that Zafar Khan's unit had suffered because of their disobedience. He declared that if he had to move, he would only move forward. Meanwhile, Qutlugh Khwaja remained reluctant to initiate an attack, and the second day ended without any military action.[9]

According to Barani, Zafar Khan's attack had caused terror among the Mongols, which was the reason for their retreat.[10] However, the real reason for the Mongol retreat appears to be that Qutlugh Khwaja was seriously wounded: he died during the return journey.[13]

Aftermathعدل

Although Zafar Khan died fighting in the battle, Alauddin resented the fact that he had disobeyed the royal orders.[14] Nobody in the royal court praised his gallantry; on the contrary, Alauddin denounced his recklessness and disobedience.[15] Zafar Khan's name was omitted in the subsequent royal chronicles written during Alauddin's reign. For example, Amir Khusrau's Khazainul Futuh makes no mention of him.[14]

The Mongols invaded India again in 1303, 1305 and 1306, but failed to defeat the Delhi Sultanate army.[16]

المراجععدل

Bibliographyعدل

  • A R Fuller (1869). "Translations from the Tarikh-i-Firuz Shahi". Journal of the Asiatic Society of Bengal. XXXVIII (IV). 
  • Banarsi Prasad Saksena (1992) [1970]. "The Khaljis: Alauddin Khalji". In Mohammad Habib and Khaliq Ahmad Nizami. A Comprehensive History of India: The Delhi Sultanat (A.D. 1206-1526). 5 (الطبعة Second). The Indian History Congress / People's Publishing House. OCLC 31870180. 
  • Kishori Saran Lal (1950). History of the Khaljis (1290-1320). Allahabad: The Indian Press. OCLC 685167335. 
  • Peter Jackson (2003). The Delhi Sultanate: A Political and Military History. Cambridge University Press. ISBN 978-0-521-54329-3. 

External linksعدل