افتح القائمة الرئيسية

الردة في المسيحية هو مصطلح يشير إلى رفض الديانة المسيحية من قبل شخص كان في السابق المسيحي. يأتي مصطلح الردة من الكلمة اليونانية (باليونانيَّة: "ἀποστασία") والتي تعني إنشقاق، أو رحيل، أو تمرد. وقد وصفت بأنها "العمد بالإبتعاد، أو التمرد ضد المسيحية. الردة هو رفض المسيح من جانب شخص كان مسيحيًا".[1] و"الردة هي تصنيف لاهوتي يصف أولئك الذين تخلوا طوعًا ووعيًا في ثقتهم بالله ووعده، وعن الإيمان بيسوع المسيح ".[2]

يتم العثور على مفهوم الردة في عدد من المواقع في الكتاب المقدس،[3] وينص قاموس الكتاب المقدس المصور أنَّ "هناك على الأقل أربع صور مختلفة في الكتاب المقدس لمفهوم الردة. وجميعها تضمن الإنشقاق المتعمد من الإيمان".[4][5] ومن بين هذه الصور هي: التمرد، والتحول بعيدًا، والهبوط بعيدًا، والزنا.[5]

ومن الطوائف المسيحية التي تؤكد في إمكانية الردة سواء في مقالاتهم أو من خلال بيانات هي الكنيسة الكاثوليكية،[6] والكنيسة الأرثوذكسية الشرقية،[7] وجيش الخلاص،[8] والكنيسة الميثودية، والكنيسة اللوثرية، والكنائس ذات تقليد تجديدية العماد.[9]

مراجععدل

  1. ^ Richard A. Muller, Dictionary of Greek and Latin Theological Terms: Drawn Principally from Protestant Scholastic Theology, 41. "Apostasy is generally defined as the determined, willful rejection of Christ and His teachings by a Christian believer (Heb. 10:26-29; . . .)(Nelson's New Illustrated Bible Dictionary: Completely Revised and Updated Edition by Ronald F. Youngblood (Editor) [Nashville: Thomas Nelson Publishers, 1995], 91). The Tyndale Bible Dictionary defines apostasy as a "Turning against God, as evidenced by abandonment and repudiation of former beliefs. The term generally refers to a deliberate renouncing of the faith by a once sincere believer . . ." ("Apostasy," Walter A. Elwell and Philip W. Comfort, editors, 95). Holman Treasury of Key Bible Words: "People who commit apostasy abandon their faith and repudiate their former beliefs. . . . Apostasy is a complete and final rejection of God" ("Apostasy," Eugene E. Carpenter & Philip W. Comfort, 227). The Dictionary of Christian Theology (edited by Alan Richardson) says apostasy "means the deliberate disavowal of belief in Christ made by a formerly believing Christian" ("Apostasy," R.P.C. Hanson; The Westminster Press, 1969, 12). Baker's Dictionary of Theology (editor in chief Everett F. Harrison) "Cremer states that apostasia is used in the absolute sense of 'passing over to unbelief,' thus a dissolution of the 'union with God subsisting through faith in Christ'" ("Apostasy," Robert Winston Ross [Baker Book House, 1976], 57).
  2. ^ Scot McKnight, Dictionary of Theological Interpretation of the Bible, "Apostasy," 58. "[Apostasy] is the deliberate denial, expressed by outward acts, of the Christian faith . . . . The passages of Scripture on which the treatment of this form of apostasy is based on are Heb. 3:12; 6:4-9; 10:16-29; 2 Pet. 2:15-21; 2 John 9-11; Luke 12:9" (E. Friedberg [contributor] The New Schaff-Herzog Encyclopedia of Religious Knowledge [New York: Funk and Wagnalls Company, 1908], 1:239).
  3. ^ Pratt, International Standard Bible Encyclopedia, 1:192.
  4. ^ "Apostasy," 39.
  5. أ ب Dictionary of Biblical Imagery, 39.
  6. ^ The Catholic teaching on apostasy is found in The Catechism of the Catholic Church (first published in the United States in 1994, and the Second Edition in 2003). According to Pope John Paul II it is "presented as a full, complete exposition of Catholic doctrine" (Catechism, "Apostolic Letter"). See sections 161-162; and 1849-1861, obtained at http://www.scborromeo.org/ccc/ccc_toc2.htm
  7. ^ While the Orthodox Church has no statement of faith or position paper on the possibility of apostasy, two Orthodox resources support the conditional security of the believer and the possibility of apostasy—see
  8. ^ See The Salvation Army Handbook of Doctrine [2010], 179-190, obtained at http://salvationist.ca/wp-content/uploads/2009/02/26defc89-e794-4e5a-a567-0793f3742430_English+Handbook+of+Doctrine+web.pdf
  9. ^ See J. C. Wenger, Introduction to Theology: A Brief Introduction to the Doctrinal Content of Scripture Written in the Anabaptist-Mennonite Tradition (Scottdale: Herald Press, 1954), 306-309, obtained at http://evangelicalarminians.org/wp-content/uploads/2014/05/Wenger-Anabaptist-Mennonite-on-Apostasy.pdf

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