عملية تبديلية: الفرق بين النسختين

أُضيف 3٬358 بايت ، ‏ قبل 4 أشهر
== مراجع ==
{{مراجع}}
 
== المصادر ==
 
=== كتب ===
 
*{{Cite book| first=Sheldon | last=Axler | title=Linear Algebra Done Right, 2e | publisher=Springer | year=1997 | isbn=0-387-98258-2}}
*:''Abstract algebra theory. Covers commutativity in that context. Uses property throughout book.''
*{{Cite book |last1=Copi |first1=Irving M. |last2=Cohen |first2=Carl |title=Introduction to Logic |publisher=Prentice Hall |year=2005 |edition=12th |isbn=9780131898349 }}
*{{Cite book|first=Joseph|last=Gallian|title=Contemporary Abstract Algebra |edition=6e|year=2006|isbn=0-618-51471-6|publisher=Houghton Mifflin }}
*:''Linear algebra theory. Explains commutativity in chapter 1, uses it throughout.''
*{{Cite book| first=Frederick | last=Goodman | title=Algebra: Abstract and Concrete, Stressing Symmetry |edition=2e | publisher=Prentice Hall | year=2003 | isbn=0-13-067342-0}}
*:''Abstract algebra theory. Uses commutativity property throughout book.''
*{{cite book |first1=Patrick J. |last1=Hurley |first2=Lori |last2=Watson |title=A Concise Introduction to Logic |url=https://books.google.com/books?id=l-W5DQAAQBAJ&pg=PA675 |date=2016 |publisher=Cengage Learning |isbn=978-1-337-51478-1 |edition=12th}}
 
=== مقالات ===
 
*{{cite document |url=http://www.ethnomath.org/resources/lumpkin1997.pdf |last=Lumpkin |first=B. |year=1997 |title=The Mathematical Legacy Of Ancient Egypt — A Response To Robert Palter |archive-url=https://web.archive.org/web/20070713072942/http://www.ethnomath.org/resources/lumpkin1997.pdf |archive-date=13 July 2007 |type=Unpublished manuscript}}
*:''Article describing the mathematical ability of ancient civilizations.''
*{{cite book |first1=Robins R. |last1=Gay |first2=Charles C. D. |last2=Shute |year=1987 |title=The Rhind Mathematical Papyrus: An Ancient Egyptian Text |publisher=British Museum |isbn=0-7141-0944-4}}
*:''Translation and interpretation of the [[Rhind Mathematical Papyrus]].''
 
=== مصادر الشابكة ===
 
*{{springer|title=Commutativity|id=p/c023420|ref=none}}
*Krowne, Aaron, {{PlanetMath|title=Commutative|urlname=Commutative}}, Accessed 8 August 2007.
*:''Definition of commutativity and examples of commutative operations''
*{{MathWorld|title=Commute|urlname=Commute}}, Accessed 8 August 2007.
*:''Explanation of the term commute''
*{{cite web |url=http://planetmath.org/?op=getuser&id=2760 |title=Yark |ref={{harvid|Yark}}}} {{PlanetMath|title=Examples of non-commutative operations|urlname=ExampleOfCommutative}}, Accessed 8 August 2007
*:''Examples proving some noncommutative operations''
*{{cite web |last1=O'Conner |first1=J.J. |last2=Robertson |first2=E.F. |url=http://www-history.mcs.st-andrews.ac.uk/HistTopics/Real_numbers_1.html |title=History of real numbers |work=MacTutor |access-date=8 August 2007 }}
*:''Article giving the history of the real numbers''
*{{cite web |last1=Cabillón |first1=Julio |last2=Miller |first2=Jeff |url=http://jeff560.tripod.com/c.html |title=Earliest Known Uses Of Mathematical Terms |access-date=22 November 2008}}
*:''Page covering the earliest uses of mathematical terms''
*{{cite web |last1=O'Conner |first1=J.J. |last2=Robertson |first2=E.F. |url=http://www-groups.dcs.st-and.ac.uk/~history/Biographies/Servois.html |title=biography of François Servois |work=MacTutor |access-date=8 August 2007 }}
*:''Biography of Francois Servois, who first used the term''
 
 
 
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