الشيطان الأكبر: الفرق بين النسختين

أُضيف 17٬306 بايت ، ‏ قبل 3 أشهر
أُنشئَت بترجمة الصفحة "Great Satan"
(أُنشئَت بترجمة الصفحة "Great Satan")
وسوم: مُسترجَع ترجمة المحتوى ترجمة المحتوى2 تعديلات طويلة
[[ملف:Vezarate.kh.entrance.jpg|تصغير| في وزارة الخارجية الإيرانية ، في [[طهران]]، لافتة إعلانية لمقال كتبه [[روح الله الخميني]] نقل عنه قوله إن أمريكا هي الشيطان الأكبر.]]
[[ملف:TheGreatSatan a.gif|تصغير|رسم الكاريكاتور السياسي كارلوس لطوف وصف الشخصية الأمريكية بالشيطان الأكبر.]]
'''الشيطان الأكبر''' هو [[لقب]] شيطاني [[الولايات المتحدة|للولايات المتحدة الأمريكية]] في بيانات [[سياسة خارجية|السياسة الخارجية الإيرانية.]] من حين لآخر، تم استخدام هذه الكلمات أيضًا تجاه حكومة [[المملكة المتحدة]].
'''الشيطان الأكبر''' {{لغة-فارسية|شيطان بزرگ}} ، هو مصطلح سياسي استخدمه مؤيدو [[روح الله الخميني|الخميني]] أثناء [[الثورة الإسلامية الإيرانية]] في [[إيران]] عام 1979م، وتشير القصد "الشيطان الأكبر" للولايات المتحدة، ومن ثم المملكة المتحدة.
 
استخدم هذا المصطلح الزعيم الإيراني [[روح الله الخميني]] في خطابه في 5 نوفمبر 1979 لوصف الولايات المتحدة، التي اتهمها [[إمبريالية|بالإمبريالية]] ورعاية الفساد في جميع أنحاء العالم. جاء الخطاب بعد يوم واحد من اندلاع [[أزمة رهائن إيران|أزمة الرهائن في إيران]].
يستخدم [[روح الله الخميني]]؛ مؤسس [[جمهورية إسلامية]] في [[إيران]]، هذا المصطلح لأول مرة.<ref>Journey of the Jihadist: Inside Muslim Militancy. Fawaz A. Gerges. Harcourt Trade, 2006. ISBN 0-15-101213-X p.143</ref><ref>The Enemy at Home: The Cultural Left and Its Responsibility for 9/11. Dinesh D'Souza. Random House, Inc., 2007. ISBN 0-385-51012-8, 9780385510127 pp.206</ref>
 
== خلفية ==
و كذلك الصحف مثل صحيفة فيجارو وسياتل تايمز استخدمت عدة مرات هذه العبارة عن اسم أمريكا.<ref>[http://www.farsnews.com/printable.php?nn=13901111000026 Fars News Agency : بيخود نيست كه به ما شيطان بزرگ مي گويند<!-- عنوان مولد بالبوت -->] {{Webarchive|url=https://web.archive.org/web/20170924095448/http://www.farsnews.com/printable.php?nn=13901111000026 |date=24 سبتمبر 2017}}</ref>
اعتبرت حكومة ما بعد [[الثورة الإيرانية|الثورة]] في إيران الولايات المتحدة والمملكة المتحدة [[إمبريالية|دولتين إمبرياليتين]] لديهما تاريخ طويل في التدخل في شؤون إيران الداخلية. في عام 1907، [[الاتفاق الأنجلو-روسي|قسمت اتفاقية أنجلو روسية]] بين روسيا وبريطانيا إيران إلى مناطق نفوذ، متجاهلة [[سيادة]] إيران وإن لم تنهيها. في عام 1953، أثناء [[الحرب الباردة]]، خطط مسئولو المخابرات البريطانية<ref>{{استشهاد بخبر
| last = Risen
| first = James
| date = 16 April 2000
| title = SECRETS OF HISTORY: The C.I.A. in Iran -- A special report.; How a Plot Convulsed Iran in '53 (and in '79)
| url = https://www.nytimes.com/2000/04/16/world/secrets-history-cia-iran-special-report-plot-convulsed-iran-53-79.html?pagewanted=all
| work = The New York Times
| accessdate = 21 May 2016
}}</ref> وإدارة [[رئيس الولايات المتحدة|الرئيس الأمريكي]] [[دوايت أيزنهاور]] لعملية أنجلو أمريكية مشتركة للإطاحة برئيس الوزراء المنتخب [[محمد مصدق]].<ref>{{استشهاد ويب
| url = https://foreignpolicy.com/2013/08/19/cia-admits-it-was-behind-irans-coup/
| title = The Battle for Iran (excerpt)
| date = c. 1975
| publisher = Central Intelligence Agency
| accessdate = 20 May 2016
| quote = Complete secrecy about the operation that was known under the cryptonym of TPAJAX has been impossible to enforce...[T]he military coup that overthrew Mosadeq and his National Front cabinet was carried out under CIA direction as an act of U.S. foreign policy, conceived and approved at the highest levels of government.
| last = Staff writer(s)
}}</ref> <ref>{{استشهاد ويب
| url = http://nsarchive.gwu.edu/NSAEBB/NSAEBB28/appendix%20D.pdf
| title = CIA Clandestine Service History, "Overthrow of Premier Mossadeq of Iran, November 1952-August 1953," March 1954, by Dr. Donald Wilber.
| date = March 1954
| accessdate = 20 May 2016
| quote = In early summer of 1953 Carroll was assigned the task of planning military aspects of TPAJAX. Several assumptions first had to be taken into account: A. Operation would be joint operation with SIS.
| last = Wilber
| first = Donald
}}</ref> <ref>{{استشهاد ويب
| url = http://nsarchive.gwu.edu/NSAEBB/NSAEBB28/summary.pdf
| title = CIA Clandestine Service History, 'Overthrow of Premier Mossadeq of Iran, November 1952-August 1953,' March 1954, by Dr. Donald Wilber.
| date = March 1954
| page = iv
| accessdate = 20 May 2016
| quote = An estimate entitled 'Factors Involved in the Overthrow of Mossadeq' was completed on 16 April 1953... In April it was determined that the CIA should conduct the envisioned operation jointly with the British Secret Intelligence Service (SIS). By the end of April, it was decided that CIA and SIS officers would draw up a plan… which would be submitted to CIA and SIS Headquarters, and to the Department of State and the Foreign Office for final approval.
| last = Wilber
| first = Donald
}}</ref> كانت إدارة أيزنهاور قلقة من أن تطلعات مصدق القومية يمكن أن تؤدي في نهاية المطاف إلى [[شيوعية|سيطرة الشيوعيين]] على إيران.<ref name="Watry2014">{{استشهاد بكتاب
| author1 = David M. Watry
| title = Diplomacy at the Brink: Eisenhower, Churchill, and Eden in the Cold War
| url = https://books.google.com/books?id=OnqOAwAAQBAJ&pg=PA93
| date = 10 December 2014
| publisher = LSU Press
| ISBN = 978-0-8071-5719-0
| page = 93
}}</ref> <ref>{{استشهاد ويب
| url = https://history.state.gov/historicaldocuments/frus1952-54v10/pg_346
| title = Telegram from The Secretary of State to the Embassy in Iran. (Memo of conversation 1 February 1952 between U.S. Department of State and British representatives regarding the Iranian political situation)
| date = 7 February 1952
| publisher = Office of the Historian of the United States Department of State
| accessdate = 20 May 2016
| quote = Although Mosadeq [will] not likely turn toward Russia it is highly improbable that he will do anything [to] check communism in Iran since his ideas of polit[ical] tolerance, neutrality, and fear of offending [the] USSR w[ou]ld prevent his taking action vs Tudeh regardless [of the] outcome [of] the oil question and request[s for] US financial assistance.
| last = Acheson
| first = Dean
}}</ref> <ref>{{استشهاد ويب
| url = https://history.state.gov/historicaldocuments/frus1952-54v10/pg_416
| title = The Ambassador in Iran (Henderson) to the Department of State, repeated to London
| date = 28 July 1952
| publisher = Office of the Historian of the United States Department of State
| accessdate = 20 May 2016
| quote = ...I could not but be discouraged at [the] thought that [a] person [Mosadeq] so lacking in stability and clearly dominated by emotions and prejudices sh[ou]ld represent [the] only bulwark left between Iran and communism... at one point I almost decided to abandon our conv[ersation] when he r[e]p[ea]t[e]d again and again in monotone that 'Iran w[ou]ld never, never want UK and US to have any differences over it. Iran w[ou]ld prefer [to] go Communist than cause any trouble between US and UK.'
| last = Henderson
| first = Loy
}}</ref> <ref>{{استشهاد ويب
| url = https://history.state.gov/historicaldocuments/frus1952-54v10/pg_420
| title = The Ambassador in Iran (Henderson) to the Department of State, repeated to London
| date = 28 July 1952
| publisher = Office of the Historian of the United States Department of State
| accessdate = 20 May 2016
| quote = At this point Mosadeq began to chant that Iran w[ou]ld prefer to go communist than for US and UN [UK] to have differences of opinion with regard to it. Eventually I was able to tell him that US choice was not merely between US-UK friction and Iran going Communist. I stressed that if serious misunderstandings sh[ou]ld develop in present world situation between US and UK, Iran would go Communist anyway.
| last = Henderson
| first = Loy
}}</ref> <ref>{{استشهاد ويب
| url = https://history.state.gov/historicaldocuments/frus1952-54v10/d339
| title = FOREIGN RELATIONS OF THE UNITED STATES, 1952–1954. IRAN, 1951–1954: VOLUME X No. 339 Editorial Note regarding Department of State Bulletin 10 August 1953, page 178
| date = 28 July 1953
| publisher = Office of the Historian of the United States Department of State
| accessdate = 20 May 2016
| quote = Secretary Dulles held a press conference on July 28. In response to a reporter's question about the growing strength of the Tudeh Party in Iran, the Secretary replied as follows: 'Recent developments in Iran, especially the growing activity of the illegal Communist party, which appears to be tolerated by the Iranian Government have caused us concern. These developments make it more difficult for the United States to give assistance to Iran so long as its government tolerates this sort of activity.'
| last = Staff writer(s)
}}</ref> <ref>{{استشهاد ويب
| url = https://history.state.gov/historicaldocuments/frus1952-54v10/d358
| title = No. 358 Memorandum of Discussion at the 160th Meeting of the National Security Council, Washington, August 27, 1953
| date = 17 September 1953
| publisher = Eisenhower Library, Eisenhower papers, Whitman file
| accessdate = 20 May 2016
| quote = Secretary [of State John Foster] Dulles commented that while what happened in Iran was spontaneous, he did feel obliged to say that a number of people in Iran had kept their heads and maintained their courage when the situation looked very tough... As a result of what had happened, Secretary Dulles informed the Council, the United States now had a 'second chance' in Iran when all hope of avoiding a Communist Iran appeared to have vanished.
| last = Gleason
| first = Sarell
}}</ref> تمت تسمية [[انقلاب 1953 في إيران|العملية باسم عملية أجاكس]]. في البداية، بدا أن الانقلاب العسكري قد فشل، [[محمد رضا بهلوي|وفر الشاه محمد رضا بهلوي]] من البلاد. <ref>{{استشهاد ويب
| url = https://partners.nytimes.com/library/world/mideast/041600iran-coup-timeline.html
| title = Key Events in the 1953 Coup
| date = 16 April 2000
| website = The New York Times
| accessdate = 21 May 2016
| quote = Aug. 16, 1953…The shah flees to Baghdad.
| last = Risen
| first = James
}}</ref> <ref>{{استشهاد ويب
| url = https://history.state.gov/historicaldocuments/frus1952-54v10/d345
| title = Telegram No. 343 The Ambassador in Iraq (Berry) to the Department of State
| date = 17 August 1953
| publisher = Office of the Historian of the U.S. Department of State
| accessdate = 21 May 2016
| quote = On the third day Mosadeq by some means had been alerted and had had the time to take successful countermeasures so that when the Colonel arrived at Mosadeq's house he was himself arrested...This morning the Shah left his Caspian Palace in a Beechcraft with a pilot, one Palace official and his Queen and landed in Baghdad at 10:15. He said that he thought that he should not stay here more than a few days, but would then go to Europe and he hoped eventually to America. He added he would be looking for work shortly as he has a large family and very small means outside of Iran. I tried to boost his morale by saying that I hoped that soon he would return to reign over his people for whom he had done so much, but he replied that Mosadeq was absolutely mad and insanely jealous, like a tiger who springs upon any living thing that it sees moving above him. Shah believes Mosadeq thinks he can form a partnership with the [Communist] Tudeh Party and then outwit it, but in so doing Mosadeq will become the Dr. [Edvard] Bene[š] of Iran.
| last = Berry
| first = Burton Y.
}}</ref> بعد أعمال شغب واسعة النطاق وبمساعدة من [[وكالة المخابرات المركزية]] وأجهزة المخابرات البريطانية، هُزم مصدق وعاد الشاه إلى السلطة، مما يضمن دعم المصالح النفطية الغربية (البريطانية بشكل رئيسي) وإنهاء التهديد المتصور المتمثل في التوسع الشيوعي. أصبح الجنرال [[فضل الله زاهدي]]، الذي قاد الانقلاب العسكري، رئيساً للوزراء.
 
في عام 1965 [[روح الله الخميني|الخميني]] لإنتقاده تصويت الثورة البيضاء للمرأة وإصلاح الأراضي ومشروع قانون وضع القوات الذي،<ref>{{استشهاد بكتاب
== مراجع ==
| author1 = Carsten Stahn
{{مراجع}}
| author2 = Jennifer S. Easterday
| last3 = Jens Iverson
| title = Jus Post Bellum: Mapping the Normative Foundations
| url = https://books.google.com/books?id=0MXRAgAAQBAJ&pg=PA468
| date = 13 February 2014
| publisher = OUP Oxford
| ISBN = 978-0-19-150938-4
| pages = 468
| quote = It is not uncommon for status questions to act as a lightning rod for…grievances of the local population…A vivid example is offered by Ayatollah Khomeini's speech of 26 October 1964 (Speech 16) denouncing the extension of diplomatic immunities to American military personnel in Iran.
}}</ref> <ref>{{استشهاد ويب
| url = https://history.state.gov/historicaldocuments/frus1964-68v22/d67
| title = 67. Memorandum From the Director of the Bureau of Intelligence and Research (Hughes) to Secretary of State Rusk; SUBJECT: The Significance of the Assassination of Prime Minister Hasan Ali Mansur
| date = 28 January 1965
| publisher = Johnson Library, National Security File, Robert W. Komer Files, Iran, 1965–March 1966.
| accessdate = 21 May 2016
| quote = There is considerable discontent in Iran because of continued repression of opposition groups, exile of Ayatollah Khomeini, unpopular measures passed by the government such as the recent Status of Forces Bill, and the increase in the cost of basic fuels.
| last = Hughes
| first = Thomas L.
}}</ref> أعطى العسكريين الأمريكيين حصانة دبلوماسية للجرائم المرتكبة في إيران.<ref>{{استشهاد ويب
| url = https://www.pbs.org/wgbh/pages/frontline/shows/tehran/etc/cron.html
| title = Chronology: U.S.–Iran relations 1906-2002
| date = 2014
| publisher = PBS News\Frontline
| accessdate = 21 May 2016
| quote = 1964... Khomeini is exiled to Turkey for his outspoken denunciation of the shah's Status of Forces bill, which grants U.S. military personnel diplomatic immunity for crimes committed on Iranian soil.
| last = Staff writer(s)
}}</ref> بحلول أوائل السبعينيات، عارض العديد من الإيرانيين حكومة الشاه.<ref>{{استشهاد ويب
| url = https://history.state.gov/historicaldocuments/frus1969-76ve04/d180
| title = Central Intelligence Agency\Directorate of Intelligence\Intelligence Report\Centers of Power in Iran
| date = May 1972
| website =
| publisher = Source: Central Intelligence Agency, OCI Files, Job 79T00832A, Box 9, 46. Secret; No Foreign Dissem. Prepared in the Office of Current Intelligence and coordinated within CIA.
| accessdate = 21 May 2016
| quote = [P]laying an essentially negative role at present... are the clergy, whose strength lies in the emotions of the Iranian masses and whose opposition to the Shah's government is nearly total...Detailed information on the clergy is not available. There are perhaps 100,000 clergymen ranging from the mullah, the lowest clerical post, to the mojtahed.
| last = Staff writer(s)
}}</ref> عاد الخميني في النهاية إلى إيران وقاد [[الثورة الإيرانية|الثورة الإيرانية عام 1979]]. خلال الثورة الإيرانية، كان المتظاهرون يرددون شعارات مثل "الموت للشاه" و "الاستقلال والحرية والجمهورية الإسلامية"<ref>{{استشهاد بخبر
| last = Staff writer(s)
| date = 7 December 2009
| title = How Iran's opposition inverts old slogans
| url = http://news.bbc.co.uk/2/hi/middle_east/8386335.stm
| publisher = BBC
| archiveurl = https://web.archive.org/web/20100102053922/http://news.bbc.co.uk/2/hi/middle_east/8386335.stm
| archivedate = 2 January 2010
| accessdate = 21 May 2016
| quote = One of the big anti-Shah chants ended with the slogan "Death to Shah!"...A main revolutionary cry was: "Estaghlal, Azadi, Jomhuriye Eslami" (Eng: Independence, Freedom, Islamic Republic).
}}</ref> و "[[الموت لأمريكا]]". <ref>{{استشهاد بخبر
| last = Staff writer(s)
| title = IRAN LEADERS BACK U.S. EMBASSY SEIZURE; Khomeini's Son Tells Students All American Ties Should Be Cut
| work = The New York Times
| quote = Students Shout "Death to America!"…Tens of thousands of students surrounded the American Embassy compound today shouting anti-American slogans such as "Death to America!"...
| agency = Reuters
| place = Teheran
| date = 6 November 1979
| pages = A1, A12
}}</ref>
 
== وصلات خارجيةتعريف ==
[[ملف:TheGreatSatan_a.gif|تصغير|200x200بك| ''الشيطان الأكبر'' [[كارلوس لطوف|لكارلوس لاتوف]]]]
* [http://www.worldtrek.org/odyssey/mideast/042600/042600kavispies.html The Great Satan] by Kavitha Rao, April 26, 2000
نُقل عن الخميني قوله في 5 نوفمبر 1979، "[أمريكا] الشيطان الأكبر، الأفعى الجريحة". <ref>Christopher Buck, ''Religious myths and visions of America: how minority faiths redefined America's world role'', page 136 </ref> تم استخدام المصطلح على نطاق واسع أثناء وبعد [[الثورة الإيرانية|الثورة الإسلامية]]، <ref>[http://www.dtic.mil/doctrine/jel/jfq_pubs/1509.pdf Iran & the Great Satan]</ref> ولا يزال يستخدم في بعض الأوساط السياسية الإيرانية. غالبا ما يكون استخدام المصطلح في التجمعات مصحوبًا بصحيحات "مارج بار أمريكا!" ("الموت لأمريكا"). يتم استخدامه في المجلات الأكاديمية. <ref>{{استشهاد بدورية محكمة
* [http://www.guardian.co.uk/elsewhere/journalist/story/0,,1415966,00.html 'Great Satan' warned of a burning hell] by [[إيان بلاك (صحفي)|إيان بلاك]], [[الغارديان]]، February 16, 2005
| title = America's foreign policy: Manifest Destiny or Great Satan?
* [https://web.archive.org/web/20130819213512/http://www.time.com/time/magazine/article/0,9171,1101021111-386942,00.html How the "Great Satan" Became Just Great]
| journal = Contemporary Politics
}}</ref>
 
=== الشيطان الأصغر ===
{{شريط بوابات|الإسلام|إيران|السياسة|الولايات المتحدة}}
أطلق الخميني على [[الاتحاد السوفيتي]]، الخصم الرئيسي للولايات المتحدة خلال [[الحرب الباردة]]، " '''الشيطان الأصغر''' " بسبب [[أيديولوجية الدولة في الاتحاد السوفيتي|أيديولوجيا الشيوعية الملحدة]]، وقال إن إيران يجب ألا تدعم أيًا من طرفي [[الحرب الباردة]] . <ref name="katz2010">{{استشهاد بكتاب
| title = The Iran Primer: Power, Politics, and U.S. Policy
| publisher = United States Institute of Peace
| editor1 = Wright, Robin B.
| pages = 186
| chapter = Iran and Russia
| author1 = Katz, Mark N.
| year = 2010
| chapterurl = https://books.google.com/books?id=MDgwl59s_hUC&pg=PA186
| ISBN = 978-1-60127-084-9
}}</ref>
 
[[إسرائيل|أدان الخميني دولة إسرائيل]] باعتبارها " الشيطان الإصغر " في عام 1979 عندما كان يتحدث عن دعم إسرائيل للشاه ، وعلاقاتها الوثيقة بالولايات المتحدة، [[القضية الفلسطينية|والصراع الإسرائيلي الفلسطيني المستمر]]. كما ذكر الزعيم الليبي السابق [[معمر القذافي]] أن "إسرائيل هي الشيطان الصغير" في مقابلة في يوليو 1980. <ref>{{استشهاد ويب
{{بذرة سياسة}}
| url = http://www.jpost.com/Features/In-Thespotlight/This-Week-in-History-Ayatollah-Khomeini-returns-to-Iran
{{بذرة سياسة إيران}}
| title = This Week in History: Ayatollah Khomeini returns to Iran - Features
{{تصنيف كومنز|America is the Great Satan}}
| website = The Jerusalem Post
}}</ref>
 
== أنظر أيضا ==
 
* [[العلاقات الإيرانية الأمريكية]]
* [[إبليس|الشيطان (الإسلام)]]
* [[معاداة أمريكا|المشاعر المعادية لأمريكا]]
* [[معاداة الصهيونية|المشاعر المعادية لإسرائيل]]
** الشيطان الصغير
** [[الكيان الصهيوني]]
 
== المراجع ==
 
[[تصنيف:اقتباسات سياسية]]
[[تصنيف:العلاقات الأمريكية الإيرانية]]
[[تصنيف:تحقير]]
[[تصنيف:روح الله الخميني]]
[[تصنيف:شعاراتاقتباسات سياسية]]
[[تصنيف:عبارات سياسية]]
[[تصنيف:مستحدثات سياسية]]
[[تصنيف:مصطلحات سياسية في إيران]]
[[تصنيف:معاداةعبارات الأمريكيينسياسية]]
[[تصنيف:معاداةالعلاقات الإمبرياليةالأمريكية الإيرانية]]
[[تصنيف:معاداة الغرب]]
[[تصنيف:معاداة الإمبريالية]]
[[تصنيف:معاداة الأمريكيين]]
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