حالة الأكسدة: الفرق بين النسختين

تم إضافة 1٬095 بايت ، ‏ قبل 3 أشهر
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بوت:الإبلاغ عن رابط معطوب أو مؤرشف V4.7*
ط (بوت:الإبلاغ عن رابط معطوب أو مؤرشف V4.7*)
ط (بوت:الإبلاغ عن رابط معطوب أو مؤرشف V4.7*)
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وبالمثل، [[بروبان|البروبان]]، {{كيم|C|3|H|8}}، تم وصفه بأنه يحتوي على حالة أكسدة الكربون -{{كسر|8|3}} <ref>{{استشهاد بكتاب|الأول=K. W.|مؤلف1=Whitten|الأول2=K. D.|مؤلف2=Galley|الأول3=R. E.|الأخير3=Davis|عنوان=General Chemistry|مسار=https://archive.org/details/generalchemistry00whit_0|إصدار=4th|ناشر=Saunders|تاريخ=1992|صفحة=[https://archive.org/details/generalchemistry00whit_0/page/147 147]}}{{بحاجة لمعرف الكتاب| مسار الأرشيف = https://web.archive.org/web/20200724225934/https://archive.org/details/generalchemistry00whit_0 | تاريخ الأرشيف = 24 يوليو 2020 }}</ref> مرة أخرى، هذه قيمة متوسطة نظرًا لأن بنية الجزيء هي {{كيم|H|3|C−CH|2|−CH|3}}، مع كل من ذرات الكربون الأولى والثالثة حالة أكسدة −3 والذرة المركزية −2.
 
مثال على حالات الأكسدة الجزئية الحقيقية للذرات المكافئة هو [[فوق أكسيد|أكسيد]] البوتاسيوم [[فوق أكسيد|الفائق]]، {{كيم|KO|2}}. أيون فوق أكسيد ثنائي الذرة {{كيم|O|2|−}} لديه شحنة إجمالية قدرها 1، لذلك يتم تعيين حالة أكسدة لكل من ذرات الأكسجين المكافئة -{{كسر|1|2}} يمكن وصف هذا الأيون بأنه هجين [[رنين (كيمياء)|رنيني]] لبنيتي لويس، حيث يكون لكل أكسجين حالة أكسدة قدرها 0 في بنية واحدة و -1 في الهيكل الآخر.
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| id="933" style="text-align:left;" |<ref name="ZeroValentBeryllium">Be(0) has been observed; see <templatestyles src="Module:Citation/CS1/styles.css"></templatestyles><cite class="citation web cs1">[https://www.chemistryviews.org/details/news/9426001/Beryllium0_Complex_Found.html "Beryllium(0) Complex Found"]. [[Chemistry Europe]]. 13 June 2016.</cite> {{Webarchive|url=https://web.archive.org/web/20201028061613/https://www.chemistryviews.org/details/news/9426001/Beryllium0_Complex_Found.html|date=2020-10-28}}</ref><ref>Be(I) has been observed in [[beryllium monohydride]] (BeH); see <templatestyles src="Module:Citation/CS1/styles.css"></templatestyles><cite class="citation journal cs1" id="CITEREFShayestehTereszchukBernathColin2003">Shayesteh, A.; Tereszchuk, K.; Bernath, P. F.; Colin, R. (2003). [https://web.archive.org/web/20071202130342/http://bernath.uwaterloo.ca/media/252.pdf "Infrared Emission Spectra of BeH and BeD"] <span class="cs1-format">(PDF)</span>. ''J. Chem. Phys''. '''118''' (3): 1158. [[بيب كود]]:[https://ui.adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2003JChPh.118.1158S 2003JChPh.118.1158S]. [[معرف الغرض الرقمي|doi]]:[[doi:10.1063/1.1528606|10.1063/1.1528606]]. Archived from [http://bernath.uwaterloo.ca/media/252.pdf the original] <span class="cs1-format">(PDF)</span> on 2007-12-02<span class="reference-accessdate">. Retrieved <span class="nowrap">2007-12-10</span></span>.</cite> and in [(CAAC)<sub>2</sub>Be]<sup>+•</sup> [CAAC = cyclic (alkyl)(amino)carbene], see <templatestyles src="Module:Citation/CS1/styles.css"></templatestyles><cite class="citation journal cs1" id="CITEREFWangWalleyDickiePan2020">Wang, Guocang; Walley, Jacob E.; Dickie, Diane E.; Pan, Sudip; Frenking, Gernot; Gilliard Jr., Robert G. (2020). [https://pubs.acs.org/doi/10.1021/jacs.9b13777 "A Stable, Crystalline Beryllium Radical Cation"]. ''J. Am. Chem. Soc''. '''142''' (10): 4560–4. [[معرف الغرض الرقمي|doi]]:[[doi:10.1021/jacs.9b13777|10.1021/jacs.9b13777]]<span class="reference-accessdate">. Retrieved <span class="nowrap">2020-11-17</span></span>.</cite> {{Webarchive|url=https://web.archive.org/web/20190908065603/https://web.archive.org/web/20071202130342/http://bernath.uwaterloo.ca/media/252.pdf |date=8 سبتمبر 2019}}</ref>
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| id="1817" style="text-align:left;" |<ref name="Zintl" /><ref>Ga(−2), Ga(−4), and Ga(−5) have been observed in the magnesium gallides MgGa, Mg<sub>2</sub>Ga, and Mg<sub>5</sub>Ga<sub>2</sub>, respectively; see <templatestyles src="Module:Citation/CS1/styles.css"></templatestyles><cite class="citation news cs1" id="CITEREFPatrick_Hofmann">Patrick Hofmann. [http://www.uni-kassel.de/upress/online/frei/978-3-7281-2597-2.volltext.frei.pdf "Colture. Ein Programm zur interaktiven Visualisierung von Festkörperstrukturen sowie Synthese, Struktur und Eigenschaften von binären und ternären Alkali- und Erdalkalimetallgalliden"] <span class="cs1-format">(PDF)</span> (in German). p.&nbsp;72.</cite> {{Webarchive|url=https://web.archive.org/web/20210203213849/http://www.uni-kassel.de/upress/online/frei/978-3-7281-2597-2.volltext.frei.pdf|date=2021-02-03}}</ref><ref>Ga(−3) has been observed in LaGa, see <templatestyles src="Module:Citation/CS1/styles.css"></templatestyles><cite class="citation journal cs1" id="CITEREFDürrBauerRöhr2011">Dürr, Ines; Bauer, Britta; Röhr, Caroline (2011). [http://www.znaturforsch.com/s66b/s66b1107.pdf "Lanthan-Triel/Tetrel-ide La(Al,Ga)<sub>''x''</sub>(Si,Ge)<sub>1-''x''</sub>. Experimentelle und theoretische Studien zur Stabilität intermetallischer 1:1-Phasen"] <span class="cs1-format">(PDF)</span>. ''Z. Naturforsch.'' (in German). '''66b''': 1107–1121.</cite> {{Webarchive|url=https://web.archive.org/web/20200804184155/http://www.znaturforsch.com/s66b/s66b1107.pdf |date=4 أغسطس 2020}}</ref>
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| id="2648" style="text-align:left;" |<ref>Ba(I) has been observed in [[barium monofluoride]] (BaF); see <templatestyles src="Module:Citation/CS1/styles.css"></templatestyles><cite class="citation journal cs1" id="CITEREFP._ColarussoGuoZhangBernath1995">P. Colarusso; Guo, B.; Zhang, K.-Q.; Bernath, P.F.; et&nbsp;al. (1995). [https://web.archive.org/web/20050310180822/http://bernath.uwaterloo.ca/media/126.pdf "High-Resolution Fourier Transform Infrared Emission Spectrum of Barium Monofluoride"] <span class="cs1-format">(PDF)</span>. ''Journal of Molecular Spectroscopy''. '''170''': 59. [[بيب كود]]:[https://ui.adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/1996JMoSp.175..158C 1996JMoSp.175..158C]. [[معرف الغرض الرقمي|doi]]:[[doi:10.1006/jmsp.1996.0019|10.1006/jmsp.1996.0019]]. Archived from [http://bernath.uwaterloo.ca/media/126.pdf the original] <span class="cs1-format">(PDF)</span> on 2005-03-10.</cite> {{Webarchive|url=https://web.archive.org/web/20190902225748/https://web.archive.org/web/20050310180822/http://bernath.uwaterloo.ca/media/126.pdf |date=2 سبتمبر 2019}}</ref>
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| id="2679" style="text-align:left;" |<ref name="Cloke1993" /><ref>La(I) has been observed in [[lanthanum monohydride]] (LaH); see <templatestyles src="Module:Citation/CS1/styles.css"></templatestyles><cite class="citation journal cs1" id="CITEREFRamBernath1996">Ram, R. S.; Bernath, P. F. (1996). [https://web.archive.org/web/20050310194449/http://bernath.uwaterloo.ca/media/143.pdf "Fourier Transform Emission Spectroscopy of New Infrared Systems of LaH and LaD"] <span class="cs1-format">(PDF)</span>. ''Journal of Molecular Spectroscopy''. '''104''' (17): 6444. [[بيب كود]]:[https://ui.adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/1996JChPh.104.6444R 1996JChPh.104.6444R]. [[معرف الغرض الرقمي|doi]]:[[doi:10.1063/1.471365|10.1063/1.471365]]. Archived from [http://bernath.uwaterloo.ca/media/143.pdf the original] <span class="cs1-format">(PDF)</span> on 2005-03-10.</cite> {{Webarchive|url=https://web.archive.org/web/20190907144220/https://web.archive.org/web/20050310194449/http://bernath.uwaterloo.ca/media/143.pdf |date=7 سبتمبر 2019}}</ref>
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| id="3827" style="text-align:left;" |<ref name="Dutkiewicz2017">Np(II), (III) and (IV) have been observed, see <templatestyles src="Module:Citation/CS1/styles.css"></templatestyles><cite class="citation journal cs1" id="CITEREFDutkiewiczApostolidisWalterArnold2017">Dutkiewicz, Michał S.; Apostolidis, Christos; Walter, Olaf; Arnold, Polly L (2017). [//www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC5431675 "Reduction chemistry of neptunium cyclopentadienide complexes: from structure to understanding"]. ''Chem. Sci''. '''8''' (4): 2553–2561. [[معرف الغرض الرقمي|doi]]:[[doi:10.1039/C7SC00034K|10.1039/C7SC00034K]]. [[ببمد سنترال|PMC]]&nbsp;<span class="cs1-lock-free" title="Freely accessible">[//www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC5431675 5431675]</span>. [[ببمد|PMID]]&nbsp;[//pubmed.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/28553487 28553487].</cite> {{Webarchive|url=https://web.archive.org/web/20200731115411/https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC5431675/ |date=31 يوليو 2020}}</ref>
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| id="3925" style="text-align:left;" |<ref name="Dau2017">Cm(V), Bk(V), and Cf(V) have been observed in BkO<sub>2</sub><sup>+</sup>, CfO<sub>2</sub><sup>+</sup>, CmO<sub>2</sub>(NO<sub>3</sub>)<sub>2</sub><sup>−</sup>, BkO<sub>2</sub>(NO<sub>3</sub>)<sub>2</sub><sup>−</sup>, and CfO<sub>2</sub>(NO<sub>3</sub>)<sub>2</sub><sup>−</sup>; see <templatestyles src="Module:Citation/CS1/styles.css"></templatestyles><cite class="citation journal cs1" id="CITEREFDauVasiliuPetersonDixon2017">Dau, Phuong Diem; Vasiliu, Monica; Peterson, Kirk A; Dixon, David A; Gibsoon, John K (October 2017). [http://www.escholarship.org/uc/item/1mk7j6ps "Remarkably High Stability of Late Actinide Dioxide Cations: Extending Chemistry to Pentavalent Berkelium and Californium"]. ''Chemistry - A European Journal''. '''23''' (68): 17369–17378. [[معرف الغرض الرقمي|doi]]:[[doi:10.1002/chem.201704193|10.1002/chem.201704193]]. [[ببمد|PMID]]&nbsp;[//pubmed.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/29024093 29024093].</cite> {{Webarchive|url=https://web.archive.org/web/20200726035338/https://escholarship.org/uc/item/1mk7j6ps|date=2020-07-26}}</ref><ref name="Kovács2018"><templatestyles src="Module:Citation/CS1/styles.css"></templatestyles><cite class="citation journal cs1" id="CITEREFKovácsDauMarçaloGibson2018">Kovács, Attila; Dau, Phuong D.; Marçalo, Joaquim; Gibson, John K. (2018). "Pentavalent Curium, Berkelium, and Californium in Nitrate Complexes: Extending Actinide Chemistry and Oxidation States". ''Inorg. Chem''. American Chemical Society. '''57''' (15): 9453–9467. [[معرف الغرض الرقمي|doi]]:[[doi:10.1021/acs.inorgchem.8b01450|10.1021/acs.inorgchem.8b01450]]. [[ببمد|PMID]]&nbsp;[//pubmed.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/30040397 30040397].</cite> {{Webarchive|url=https://web.archive.org/web/20201108053931/https://pubmed.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/30040397/ |date=8 نوفمبر 2020}}</ref><ref>Cm(VI) has been observed in [[curium trioxide]] (CmO<sub>3</sub>) and dioxidocurium(2+) (<span class="chemf nowrap">CmO2+</span>); see <templatestyles src="Module:Citation/CS1/styles.css"></templatestyles><cite class="citation journal cs1" id="CITEREFDomanovLobanov2011">Domanov, V. P.; Lobanov, Yu. V. (October 2011). "Formation of volatile curium(VI) trioxide CmO<sub>3</sub>". ''Radiochemistry''. '''53''' (5): 453–6. [[معرف الغرض الرقمي|doi]]:[[doi:10.1134/S1066362211050018|10.1134/S1066362211050018]].</cite></ref><ref>Cm(VIII) has been reported to possibly occur in [[curium tetroxide]] (CmO<sub>4</sub>); see <templatestyles src="Module:Citation/CS1/styles.css"></templatestyles><cite class="citation journal cs1" id="CITEREFDomanov2013">Domanov, V. P. (January 2013). "Possibility of generation of octavalent curium in the gas phase in the form of volatile tetraoxide CmO<sub>4</sub>". ''Radiochemistry''. '''55''' (1): 46–51. [[معرف الغرض الرقمي|doi]]:[[doi:10.1134/S1066362213010098|10.1134/S1066362213010098]].</cite> However, new experiments seem to indicate its nonexistence: <templatestyles src="Module:Citation/CS1/styles.css"></templatestyles><cite class="citation journal cs1" id="CITEREFZaitsevskiiSchwarz2014">Zaitsevskii, Andréi; Schwarz, W H Eugen (April 2014). "Structures and stability of AnO4 isomers, An = Pu, Am, and Cm: a relativistic density functional study". ''Physical Chemistry Chemical Physics''. '''2014''' (16): 8997–9001. [[بيب كود]]:[https://ui.adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2014PCCP...16.8997Z 2014PCCP...16.8997Z]. [[معرف الغرض الرقمي|doi]]:[[doi:10.1039/c4cp00235k|10.1039/c4cp00235k]]. [[ببمد|PMID]]&nbsp;[//pubmed.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/24695756 24695756].</cite> {{Webarchive|url=https://web.archive.org/web/20200729010402/https://ui.adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2014PCCP...16.8997Z|date=2020-07-29}}</ref>
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