فأرة حاسوب: الفرق بين النسختين

تم إزالة 7٬716 بايت ، ‏ قبل شهرين
ط (روبوت (1.2): تعريب (Lilith->ليليث))
 
تم تصميم [[DE-9 connectors|موصلات DE-9]] لتكون متوافقة كهربائيًا مع أجهزة التحكم الشائعة في العديد من أنظمة ذات 8 بت ، مثل [[كومودور 64]] و [[أتاري 2600]]. على الرغم من أنه يمكن استخدام المنافذ لكلا الاستخدامين، إلا أنه يجب تفسير الإشارات بشكل مختلف. نتيجة لذلك يؤدي توصيل الفأرة بمنفذ عصا التحكم إلى تحرك "عصا التحكم" بشكل مستمر في بعض الاتجاهات، حتى إذا ظل الماوس ثابتًا ، بينما يؤدي توصيل عصا التحكم في منفذ الفأرة إلى قدرة "الفأرة" على تحريك [[بكسل|بكسل واحد]] في كل اتجاه.
 
=== الواجهة والبروتوكول التسلسلي ===
[[File:Mouse quadrature encoding Lyon 1980.png|thumb|Signals XA and XB in [[Quadrature phase|quadrature]] convey X-direction motion, while YA and YB convey Y-dimension motion; here the pointer (cursor) is shown drawing a small curve.]]
 
Because the IBM PC did not have a [[quadrature decoder]] built in, early PC mice used the [[آر إس 232]]C serial port to communicate encoded mouse movements, as well as provide power to the mouse's circuits. The [[Mouse Systems|Mouse Systems Corporation]] version used a five-byte protocol and supported three buttons. The Microsoft version used a three-byte protocol and supported two buttons. Due to the incompatibility between the two protocols, some manufacturers sold serial mice with a mode switch: "PC" for MSC mode, "MS" for Microsoft mode.<ref>[http://freedos-32.sourceforge.net/showdoc.php?page=sermouse FreeDOS-32&nbsp;– Serial Mouse driver] {{webarchive|url=https://web.archive.org/web/20090302000300/http://freedos-32.sourceforge.net/showdoc.php?page=sermouse|date=2009-03-02}}</ref>
 
===تصميم شركة أبل===
[[File:Apple Macintosh Plus mouse.jpg|thumb|[[Macintosh Plus|Apple Macintosh Plus]] mice: beige mouse (left), platinum mouse (right), 1986]]
 
In 1986 [[أبل]] first implemented the [[Apple Desktop Bus]] allowing the [[سلسلة الأقحوان]] of up to 16 devices, including mice and other devices on the same bus with no configuration whatsoever. Featuring only a single data pin, the bus used a purely polled approach to device communications and survived as the standard on mainstream models (including a number of non-Apple workstations) until 1998 when Apple's [[آي ماك]] line of computers joined the industry-wide switch to using [[يو إس بي|USB]]. Beginning with the Bronze Keyboard PowerBook G3 in May 1999, Apple dropped the external ADB port in favor of USB, but retained an internal ADB connection in the [[PowerBook G4]] for communication with its built-in keyboard and trackpad until early 2005.
 
=== الواجهة والبروتوكول لاداة PS/2 ===
{{details|PS/2 connector}}
[[File:ps-2-ports.jpg|thumb|Color-coded PS/2 connection ports; purple for keyboard and green for mouse]]
 
With the arrival of the [[IBM Personal System/2|IBM PS/2]] personal-computer series in 1987, IBM introduced the [[مسماة]]ous [[PS/2 port]] for mice and keyboards, which other manufacturers rapidly adopted. The most visible change was the use of a round 6-pin [[mini-DIN connector|mini-DIN]], in lieu of the former 5-pin MIDI style full sized [[DIN 41524]] connector. In default mode (called ''stream mode'') a PS/2 mouse communicates motion, and the state of each button, by means of 3-byte packets.<ref>{{cite web |author-first=Adam |author-last=Chapweske |url=http://www.computer-engineering.org/ps2mouse/ |title=Computer Engineering Tips – PS/2 Mouse Interface |publisher=Computer-engineering.org |date=2003-04-01 |access-date=2013-03-10}}</ref> For any motion, button press or button release event, a PS/2 mouse sends, over a bi-directional serial port, a sequence of three bytes, with the following format:
 
{|class="wikitable"
|- align=center
!||Bit 7||Bit 6||Bit 5||Bit 4||Bit 3||Bit 2||Bit 1||Bit 0
|- align=center
!Byte 1
|YV||XV||YS||XS||1||MB||RB||LB
|- style="text-align:center;"
!Byte 2
|colspan="8"|X movement
|- style="text-align:center;"
!Byte 3
|colspan="8"|Y movement
|}
 
Here, XS and YS represent the sign bits of the movement vectors, XV and YV indicate an overflow in the respective vector component, and LB, MB and RB indicate the status of the left, middle and right [[mouse button]]s (1 = pressed). PS/2 mice also understand several commands for reset and self-test, switching between different operating modes, and changing the resolution of the reported motion vectors.
 
A [[IntelliMouse|Microsoft IntelliMouse]] relies on an extension of the PS/2 protocol: the ImPS/2 or IMPS/2 protocol (the abbreviation combines the concepts of "IntelliMouse" and "PS/2"). It initially operates in standard PS/2 format, for backwards compatibility. After the host sends a special command sequence, it switches to an extended format in which a fourth byte carries information about wheel movements. The IntelliMouse Explorer works analogously, with the difference that its 4-byte packets also allow for two additional buttons (for a total of five).<ref>[http://www.microsoft.com/whdc/device/input/mcompat.mspx Retrieved 31 December 2006] {{webarchive|url=https://web.archive.org/web/20080408164755/http://www.microsoft.com/whdc/device/input/mcompat.mspx|date=2008-04-08}}</ref>
 
Mouse vendors also use other extended formats, often without providing public documentation. The Typhoon mouse uses 6-byte packets which can appear as a sequence of two standard 3-byte packets, such that an ordinary PS/2 [[برنامج تعريف]] can handle them.<ref>{{cite web |title=Keyboard scancodes: The PS/2 Mouse|url=http://www.win.tue.nl/~aeb/linux/kbd/scancodes-13.html |publisher=Win.tue.nl |access-date=2017-12-08}}</ref> For 3-D (or 6-degree-of-freedom) input, vendors have made many extensions both to the hardware and to software. In the late 1990s, Logitech created ultrasound based tracking which gave 3D input to a few millimeters accuracy, which worked well as an input device but failed as a profitable product. In 2008, Motion4U introduced its "OptiBurst" system using IR tracking for use as a Maya (graphics software) plugin.{{Relevance inline|last sentence or two|date=April 2020|reason=What does this have to do with PS/2 interfaces?}}
 
===[[يو إس بي|يو أس بي]]===
The industry-standard [[يو إس بي|USB]] (Universal Serial Bus) protocol and its connector have become widely used for mice; it is among the most popular types.<ref>{{استشهاد بدورية محكمة |تاريخ=November 2007 |عنوان=USB: A Technological Success Story |author-first=Jon |author-last=Gan |صحيفة=HWM |issn=0219-5607 |ناشر=SPH Magazines |صفحة=114 |مسار=https://books.google.com/books?id=MesDAAAAMBAJ&pg=RA1-PA49}}</ref>
 
===انظمة اللاسليكية===
Cordless or wireless mice transmit data via [[الأشعة تحت الحمراء]] radiation (see [[Infrared Data Association|IrDA]]) or [[البث الإذاعي]] (including [[بلوتوث]] and [[واي-فاي]]).<ref>{{cite web|url=http://www.targus.com/us/productdetail.aspx?regionId=7&sku=AMW58US&PageName=Mice%20for%20Laptops%20by%20Targus&productCategoryId=20&bucketTypeId=0&searchedTerms=&navlevel1=products&cp=&bannertxt=Mice%20for%20Laptops|title=Targus WiFi Laser Mouse {{!}} AMW58US|work=Targus|url-status=live|archive-url=https://web.archive.org/web/20130624024601/http://www.targus.com/us/productdetail.aspx?regionId=7&sku=AMW58US&PageName=Mice%20for%20Laptops%20by%20Targus&productCategoryId=20&bucketTypeId=0&searchedTerms=&navlevel1=products&cp=&bannertxt=Mice%20for%20Laptops|archive-date=2013-06-24}}</ref> The receiver is connected to the computer through a serial or USB port, or can be built in (as is sometimes the case with Bluetooth and WiFi).
Modern non-Bluetooth and non-WiFi wireless mice use USB receivers. Some of these can be stored inside the mouse for safe transport while not in use, while other, newer mice use newer "[[List of wireless mice with nano receivers|nano]]" receivers, designed to be small enough to remain plugged into a laptop during transport, while still being large enough to easily remove.<ref>{{cite web |author-first=Lisa |author-last=Johnston |url=http://peripherals.about.com/od/glossaryofpcterms/g/WhatIsANanoReceiver.htm |title=What Is a Nano Wireless Receiver? |access-date=2010-09-03}}</ref>
 
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