فأرة حاسوب: الفرق بين النسختين

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[[File:Computer Museum of America (02).jpg|thumb|Xerox Alto mouse]]
In the 1970s, the [[Xerox Alto]] mouse, and in the 1980s the Xerox [[opticalفأرة mouseضوئية]], used a [[Rotary encoder#Incremental rotary encoder|quadrature-encoded]] X and Y interface. This two-bit encoding per dimension had the property that only one bit of the two would change at a time, like a [[Grayشفرة codeمنعكسة]] or [[Johnson counter]], so that the transitions would not be misinterpreted when asynchronously sampled.<ref>Richard F. Lyon (1981), [http://www.bitsavers.org/pdf/xerox/parc/techReports/VLSI-81-1_The_Optical_Mouse.pdf "The Optical Mouse, and an Architectural Methodology for Smart Digital Sensors"], Xerox PARC report. "The counters needed for X and Y simply count through four states, in either direction (up or down), changing only one bit at a time (i.e. 00, 01, 11, 10). This is a simple case of either a Gray-code counter or a Johnson counter (Moebius counter)."</ref>
The earliest mass-market mice, such as on the [[Apple mouse#Models|original Macintosh]], [[Amigaأميغا]], and [[Atariأتاري STإس تي]] mice used a [[D-subminiature]] 9-pin connector to send the quadrature-encoded X and Y axis signals directly, plus one pin per mouse button. The mouse was a simple optomechanical device, and the decoding circuitry was all in the main computer.
The [[DE-9 connector]]s were designed to be electrically compatible with the [[Joystick#Electronic games|joysticks]] popular on numerous 8-bit systems, such as the [[Commodoreكومودور 64]] and the [[Atariأتاري 2600]]. Although the ports could be used for both purposes, the signals must be interpreted differently. As a result, plugging a mouse into a joystick port causes the "joystick" to continuously move in some direction, even if the mouse stays still, whereas plugging a joystick into a mouse port causes the "mouse" to only be able to move a single pixel in each direction.
=== الواجهة والبروتوكول التسلسلي ===
[[File:Mouse quadrature encoding Lyon 1980.png|thumb|Signals XA and XB in [[Quadrature phase|quadrature]] convey X-direction motion, while YA and YB convey Y-dimension motion; here the pointer (cursor) is shown drawing a small curve.]]
Because the IBM PC did not have a [[quadrature decoder]] built in, early PC mice used the [[RS-آر إس 232]]C serial port to communicate encoded mouse movements, as well as provide power to the mouse's circuits. The [[Mouse Systems|Mouse Systems Corporation]] version used a five-byte protocol and supported three buttons. The Microsoft version used a three-byte protocol and supported two buttons. Due to the incompatibility between the two protocols, some manufacturers sold serial mice with a mode switch: "PC" for MSC mode, "MS" for Microsoft mode.<ref>[http://freedos-32.sourceforge.net/showdoc.php?page=sermouse FreeDOS-32&nbsp;– Serial Mouse driver] {{webarchive|url=https://web.archive.org/web/20090302000300/http://freedos-32.sourceforge.net/showdoc.php?page=sermouse|date=2009-03-02}}</ref>
===تصميم شركة أبل===
[[File:Apple Macintosh Plus mouse.jpg|thumb|[[Macintosh Plus|Apple Macintosh Plus]] mice: beige mouse (left), platinum mouse (right), 1986]]
In 1986 [[Apple Inc.|Appleأبل]] first implemented the [[Apple Desktop Bus]] allowing the [[Daisyسلسلة chain (electrical engineering)|daisy chainingالأقحوان]] of up to 16 devices, including mice and other devices on the same bus with no configuration whatsoever. Featuring only a single data pin, the bus used a purely polled approach to device communications and survived as the standard on mainstream models (including a number of non-Apple workstations) until 1998 when Apple's [[iMacآي ماك]] line of computers joined the industry-wide switch to using [[Universalيو Serialإس Busبي|USB]]. Beginning with the Bronze Keyboard PowerBook G3 in May 1999, Apple dropped the external ADB port in favor of USB, but retained an internal ADB connection in the [[PowerBook G4]] for communication with its built-in keyboard and trackpad until early 2005.
=== الواجهة والبروتوكول لاداة PS/2 ===
[[File:ps-2-ports.jpg|thumb|Color-coded PS/2 connection ports; purple for keyboard and green for mouse]]
With the arrival of the [[IBM Personal System/2|IBM PS/2]] personal-computer series in 1987, IBM introduced the [[eponymمسماة]]ous [[PS/2 port]] for mice and keyboards, which other manufacturers rapidly adopted. The most visible change was the use of a round 6-pin [[mini-DIN connector|mini-DIN]], in lieu of the former 5-pin MIDI style full sized [[DIN 41524]] connector. In default mode (called ''stream mode'') a PS/2 mouse communicates motion, and the state of each button, by means of 3-byte packets.<ref>{{cite web |author-first=Adam |author-last=Chapweske |url=http://www.computer-engineering.org/ps2mouse/ |title=Computer Engineering Tips – PS/2 Mouse Interface |publisher=Computer-engineering.org |date=2003-04-01 |access-date=2013-03-10}}</ref> For any motion, button press or button release event, a PS/2 mouse sends, over a bi-directional serial port, a sequence of three bytes, with the following format:
A [[IntelliMouse|Microsoft IntelliMouse]] relies on an extension of the PS/2 protocol: the ImPS/2 or IMPS/2 protocol (the abbreviation combines the concepts of "IntelliMouse" and "PS/2"). It initially operates in standard PS/2 format, for backwards compatibility. After the host sends a special command sequence, it switches to an extended format in which a fourth byte carries information about wheel movements. The IntelliMouse Explorer works analogously, with the difference that its 4-byte packets also allow for two additional buttons (for a total of five).<ref>[http://www.microsoft.com/whdc/device/input/mcompat.mspx Retrieved 31 December 2006] {{webarchive|url=https://web.archive.org/web/20080408164755/http://www.microsoft.com/whdc/device/input/mcompat.mspx|date=2008-04-08}}</ref>
Mouse vendors also use other extended formats, often without providing public documentation. The Typhoon mouse uses 6-byte packets which can appear as a sequence of two standard 3-byte packets, such that an ordinary PS/2 [[deviceبرنامج driver|driverتعريف]] can handle them.<ref>{{cite web |title=Keyboard scancodes: The PS/2 Mouse|url=http://www.win.tue.nl/~aeb/linux/kbd/scancodes-13.html |publisher=Win.tue.nl |access-date=2017-12-08}}</ref> For 3-D (or 6-degree-of-freedom) input, vendors have made many extensions both to the hardware and to software. In the late 1990s, Logitech created ultrasound based tracking which gave 3D input to a few millimeters accuracy, which worked well as an input device but failed as a profitable product. In 2008, Motion4U introduced its "OptiBurst" system using IR tracking for use as a Maya (graphics software) plugin.{{Relevance inline|last sentence or two|date=April 2020|reason=What does this have to do with PS/2 interfaces?}}
===[[يو إس بي|يو أس بي]]===
The industry-standard [[Universalيو Serialإس Busبي|USB]] (Universal Serial Bus) protocol and its connector have become widely used for mice; it is among the most popular types.<ref>{{citeاستشهاد بدورية journalمحكمة |dateتاريخ=November 2007 |titleعنوان=USB: A Technological Success Story |author-first=Jon |author-last=Gan |journalصحيفة=HWM |issn=0219-5607 |publisherناشر=SPH Magazines |pageصفحة=114 |urlمسار=https://books.google.com/books?id=MesDAAAAMBAJ&pg=RA1-PA49}}</ref>
===انظمة اللاسليكية===
Cordless or wireless mice transmit data via [[infraredالأشعة تحت الحمراء]] radiation (see [[Infrared Data Association|IrDA]]) or [[radioالبث الإذاعي]] (including [[Bluetoothبلوتوث]] and [[Wiواي-Fiفاي]]).<ref>{{cite web|url=http://www.targus.com/us/productdetail.aspx?regionId=7&sku=AMW58US&PageName=Mice%20for%20Laptops%20by%20Targus&productCategoryId=20&bucketTypeId=0&searchedTerms=&navlevel1=products&cp=&bannertxt=Mice%20for%20Laptops|title=Targus WiFi Laser Mouse {{!}} AMW58US|work=Targus|url-status=live|archive-url=https://web.archive.org/web/20130624024601/http://www.targus.com/us/productdetail.aspx?regionId=7&sku=AMW58US&PageName=Mice%20for%20Laptops%20by%20Targus&productCategoryId=20&bucketTypeId=0&searchedTerms=&navlevel1=products&cp=&bannertxt=Mice%20for%20Laptops|archive-date=2013-06-24}}</ref> The receiver is connected to the computer through a serial or USB port, or can be built in (as is sometimes the case with Bluetooth and WiFi).
Modern non-Bluetooth and non-WiFi wireless mice use USB receivers. Some of these can be stored inside the mouse for safe transport while not in use, while other, newer mice use newer "[[List of wireless mice with nano receivers|nano]]" receivers, designed to be small enough to remain plugged into a laptop during transport, while still being large enough to easily remove.<ref>{{cite web |author-first=Lisa |author-last=Johnston |url=http://peripherals.about.com/od/glossaryofpcterms/g/WhatIsANanoReceiver.htm |title=What Is a Nano Wireless Receiver? |access-date=2010-09-03}}</ref>
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File:Logitech metaphor-P4191183-black.jpg|The Logitech Metaphor, the first wireless mouse (1984). On display at the [[Musée Bolo]], [[EPFLمدرسة لوزان الاتحادية للفنون التطبيقية]]
File:Microsoft-wireless-mouse.jpg|A Microsoft wireless mouse made for notebook computers
File:Microsoft Bluetooth Mobile Mouse 3600.jpg|Microsoft Bluetooth Mobile Mouse 3600