فأرة حاسوب: الفرق بين النسختين

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[[ملف:Logitech Mouse.JPG|تصغير|فأرة ضوئية تعمل بليزر أشباه الموصلات]]
 
== بروتوكول الاتصال والترابط ==
==Connectivity and communication protocols==
[[File:MS-Arc-Mouse.jpg|thumb|A Microsoft wireless [[Arc Mouse]], marketed as "travel-friendly" and foldable but otherwise operated exactly like other 3-button wheel-based optical mice]]
 
Mouse use in DOS applications became more common after the introduction of the [[Microsoft Mouse]], largely because Microsoft provided an open standard for communication between applications and mouse driver software. Thus, any application written to use the Microsoft standard could use a mouse with a driver that implements the same API, even if the mouse hardware itself was incompatible with Microsoft's. This driver provides the state of the buttons and the distance the mouse has moved in units that its documentation calls "[[#Mouse speed|mickeys]]",<ref name="int33h">{{cite web |url=http://gd.tuwien.ac.at/languages/c/programming-bbrown/advcw3.htm#mouse |title=Interfacing to mouse.sys |access-date=2011-10-08 |url-status=dead |archive-url=https://web.archive.org/web/20110819232148/http://gd.tuwien.ac.at/languages/c/programming-bbrown/advcw3.htm#mouse |archive-date=2011-08-19 }}</ref>
 
===تصميم الفأرة المبكر===
===Early mice===
[[File:Computer Museum of America (02).jpg|thumb|Xerox Alto mouse]]
 
The [[DE-9 connector]]s were designed to be electrically compatible with the [[Joystick#Electronic games|joysticks]] popular on numerous 8-bit systems, such as the [[Commodore 64]] and the [[Atari 2600]]. Although the ports could be used for both purposes, the signals must be interpreted differently. As a result, plugging a mouse into a joystick port causes the "joystick" to continuously move in some direction, even if the mouse stays still, whereas plugging a joystick into a mouse port causes the "mouse" to only be able to move a single pixel in each direction.
 
=== الواجهة والبروتوكول التسلسلي ===
===Serial interface and protocol===
[[File:Mouse quadrature encoding Lyon 1980.png|thumb|Signals XA and XB in [[Quadrature phase|quadrature]] convey X-direction motion, while YA and YB convey Y-dimension motion; here the pointer (cursor) is shown drawing a small curve.]]
 
Because the IBM PC did not have a [[quadrature decoder]] built in, early PC mice used the [[RS-232]]C serial port to communicate encoded mouse movements, as well as provide power to the mouse's circuits. The [[Mouse Systems|Mouse Systems Corporation]] version used a five-byte protocol and supported three buttons. The Microsoft version used a three-byte protocol and supported two buttons. Due to the incompatibility between the two protocols, some manufacturers sold serial mice with a mode switch: "PC" for MSC mode, "MS" for Microsoft mode.<ref>[http://freedos-32.sourceforge.net/showdoc.php?page=sermouse FreeDOS-32&nbsp;– Serial Mouse driver] {{webarchive|url=https://web.archive.org/web/20090302000300/http://freedos-32.sourceforge.net/showdoc.php?page=sermouse|date=2009-03-02}}</ref>
 
===Appleتصميم Desktopشركة Busأبل===
[[File:Apple Macintosh Plus mouse.jpg|thumb|[[Macintosh Plus|Apple Macintosh Plus]] mice: beige mouse (left), platinum mouse (right), 1986]]
 
In 1986 [[Apple Inc.|Apple]] first implemented the [[Apple Desktop Bus]] allowing the [[Daisy chain (electrical engineering)|daisy chaining]] of up to 16 devices, including mice and other devices on the same bus with no configuration whatsoever. Featuring only a single data pin, the bus used a purely polled approach to device communications and survived as the standard on mainstream models (including a number of non-Apple workstations) until 1998 when Apple's [[iMac]] line of computers joined the industry-wide switch to using [[Universal Serial Bus|USB]]. Beginning with the Bronze Keyboard PowerBook G3 in May 1999, Apple dropped the external ADB port in favor of USB, but retained an internal ADB connection in the [[PowerBook G4]] for communication with its built-in keyboard and trackpad until early 2005.
 
=== الواجهة والبروتوكول لاداة PS/2 ===
===PS/2 interface and protocol===
{{details|PS/2 connector}}
[[File:ps-2-ports.jpg|thumb|Color-coded PS/2 connection ports; purple for keyboard and green for mouse]]
Mouse vendors also use other extended formats, often without providing public documentation. The Typhoon mouse uses 6-byte packets which can appear as a sequence of two standard 3-byte packets, such that an ordinary PS/2 [[device driver|driver]] can handle them.<ref>{{cite web |title=Keyboard scancodes: The PS/2 Mouse|url=http://www.win.tue.nl/~aeb/linux/kbd/scancodes-13.html |publisher=Win.tue.nl |access-date=2017-12-08}}</ref> For 3-D (or 6-degree-of-freedom) input, vendors have made many extensions both to the hardware and to software. In the late 1990s, Logitech created ultrasound based tracking which gave 3D input to a few millimeters accuracy, which worked well as an input device but failed as a profitable product. In 2008, Motion4U introduced its "OptiBurst" system using IR tracking for use as a Maya (graphics software) plugin.{{Relevance inline|last sentence or two|date=April 2020|reason=What does this have to do with PS/2 interfaces?}}
 
===[[يو إس بي|يو أس بي]]===
===USB===
{{Expand section|information on how USB is used by mice, such as details of the USB protocol|date=April 2020}}
The industry-standard [[Universal Serial Bus|USB]] (Universal Serial Bus) protocol and its connector have become widely used for mice; it is among the most popular types.<ref>{{cite journal |date=November 2007 |title=USB: A Technological Success Story |author-first=Jon |author-last=Gan |journal=HWM |issn=0219-5607 |publisher=SPH Magazines |page=114 |url=https://books.google.com/books?id=MesDAAAAMBAJ&pg=RA1-PA49}}</ref>
 
===انظمة اللاسليكية===
===Cordless or wireless===
Cordless or wireless mice transmit data via [[infrared]] radiation (see [[Infrared Data Association|IrDA]]) or [[radio]] (including [[Bluetooth]] and [[Wi-Fi]]).<ref>{{cite web|url=http://www.targus.com/us/productdetail.aspx?regionId=7&sku=AMW58US&PageName=Mice%20for%20Laptops%20by%20Targus&productCategoryId=20&bucketTypeId=0&searchedTerms=&navlevel1=products&cp=&bannertxt=Mice%20for%20Laptops|title=Targus WiFi Laser Mouse {{!}} AMW58US|work=Targus|url-status=live|archive-url=https://web.archive.org/web/20130624024601/http://www.targus.com/us/productdetail.aspx?regionId=7&sku=AMW58US&PageName=Mice%20for%20Laptops%20by%20Targus&productCategoryId=20&bucketTypeId=0&searchedTerms=&navlevel1=products&cp=&bannertxt=Mice%20for%20Laptops|archive-date=2013-06-24}}</ref> The receiver is connected to the computer through a serial or USB port, or can be built in (as is sometimes the case with Bluetooth and WiFi).
Modern non-Bluetooth and non-WiFi wireless mice use USB receivers. Some of these can be stored inside the mouse for safe transport while not in use, while other, newer mice use newer "[[List of wireless mice with nano receivers|nano]]" receivers, designed to be small enough to remain plugged into a laptop during transport, while still being large enough to easily remove.<ref>{{cite web |author-first=Lisa |author-last=Johnston |url=http://peripherals.about.com/od/glossaryofpcterms/g/WhatIsANanoReceiver.htm |title=What Is a Nano Wireless Receiver? |access-date=2010-09-03}}</ref>
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