إدمان (مخدرات): الفرق بين النسختين

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ط
بوت:إصلاح تحويلات القوالب
(تعديل إملائي)
وسوم: تحرير من المحمول تعديل ويب محمول تحرير مرئي تعديلات طويلة تعديل المحمول المتقدم مهمة الوافد الجديد
ط (بوت:إصلاح تحويلات القوالب)
'''الإدمان''' بالمعنى العام هو حالة تكيفية تنتج من تكرار تعاطي مادة أو <nowiki/>[[عقار (مادة كيميائية)|دواء]]، مما يؤدي إلى أعراض ا<nowiki/>[[أعراض انسحابية|نسحابية]] عند التوقف عن الاستخدام(التعاطي).
 
<ref name="NHM terms-DSM flaw">{{مرجعاستشهاد كتاببكتاب|عنوان=Molecular Neuropharmacology: A Foundation for Clinical Neuroscience|ناشر=McGraw-Hill Medical|سنة=2009|ISBN=9780071481274|إصدار=2nd|صفحات=364–368|chapter=Chapter 15: Reinforcement and Addictive Disorders|اقتباس=The defining feature of addiction is compulsive, out-of-control drug use, despite negative consequences.&nbsp;...<br /></span>Addictive drugs are both rewarding and reinforcing.&nbsp;... Familiar pharmacologic terms such as tolerance, dependence, and sensitization are useful in describing some of the time-dependent processes that underlie addiction.&nbsp;... <br />''Dependence'' is defined as an adaptive state that develops in response to repeated drug administration, and is unmasked during ''withdrawal'', which occurs when drug taking stops. Dependence from long-term drug use may have both a somatic component, manifested by physical symptoms, and an emotional–motivation component, manifested by dysphoria. While physical dependence and withdrawal occur with some drugs of abuse (opiates, ethanol), these phenomena are not useful in the diagnosis of addiction because they do not occur with other drugs of abuse (cocaine, amphetamine) and can occur with many drugs that are not abused (propranolol, clonidine).<br /><br />The official diagnosis of drug addiction by the Diagnostic and Statistic Manual of Mental Disorders (2000), which makes distinctions between drug use, abuse, and substance dependence, is flawed. First, diagnosis of drug use versus abuse can be arbitrary and reflect cultural norms, not medical phenomena. Second, the term substance dependence implies that dependence is the primary pharmacologic phenomenon underlying addiction, which is likely not true, as tolerance, sensitization, and learning and memory also play central roles. It is ironic and unfortunate that the Manual avoids use of the term addiction, which provides the best description of the clinical syndrome.}}</ref><ref name="NIH">{{مرجعاستشهاد ويب
| مسار = https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmedhealth/PMH0002490/
| عنوان = Substance use disorder
 
 ΔFosB، عامل <nowiki/>[[نسخ (وراثة)|النسخ الجيني]]، من المعروف الآن أنه عنصر حاسم وعامل مشترك في تكوين تقريبا جميع أشكال الإدمان السلوكية والإدمان على المواد،<ref name="Nestler">{{Cite journal|عنوان=Transcriptional and epigenetic mechanisms of addiction|تاريخ=November 2011|صحيفة=Nat. Rev. Neurosci.|العدد=11|DOI=10.1038/nrn3111|المجلد=12|صفحات=623–637|PMID=21989194|اقتباس=ΔFosB has been linked directly to several addiction-related behaviors&nbsp;... Importantly, genetic or viral overexpression of ΔJunD, a dominant negative mutant of JunD which antagonizes ΔFosB- and other AP-1-mediated transcriptional activity, in the NAc or OFC blocks these key effects of drug exposure14,22–24. This indicates that ΔFosB is both necessary and sufficient for many of the changes wrought in the brain by chronic drug exposure. ΔFosB is also induced in D1-type NAc MSNs by chronic consumption of several natural rewards, including sucrose, high fat food, sex, wheel running, where it promotes that consumption14,26–30. This implicates ΔFosB in the regulation of natural rewards under normal conditions and perhaps during pathological addictive-like states.}}</ref><ref name="ΔFosB reward">{{Cite journal|عنوان=Sex, drugs, and rock 'n' roll: hypothesizing common mesolimbic activation as a function of reward gene polymorphisms|صحيفة=J. Psychoactive Drugs|العدد=1|DOI=10.1080/02791072.2012.662112|سنة=2012|المجلد=44|صفحات=38–55|PMID=22641964|اقتباس=It has been found that deltaFosB gene in the NAc is critical for reinforcing effects of sexual reward. Pitchers and colleagues (2010) reported that sexual experience was shown to cause DeltaFosB accumulation in several limbic brain regions including the NAc, medial pre-frontal cortex, VTA, caudate, and putamen, but not the medial preoptic nucleus. Next, the induction of c-Fos, a downstream (repressed) target of DeltaFosB, was measured in sexually experienced and naive animals. The number of mating-induced c-Fos-IR cells was significantly decreased in sexually experienced animals compared to sexually naive controls. Finally, DeltaFosB levels and its activity in the NAc were manipulated using viral-mediated gene transfer to study its potential role in mediating sexual experience and experience-induced facilitation of sexual performance. Animals with DeltaFosB overexpression displayed enhanced facilitation of sexual performance with sexual experience relative to controls. In contrast, the expression of DeltaJunD, a dominant-negative binding partner of DeltaFosB, attenuated sexual experience-induced facilitation of sexual performance, and stunted long-term maintenance of facilitation compared to DeltaFosB overexpressing group. Together, these findings support a critical role for DeltaFosB expression in the NAc in the reinforcing effects of sexual behavior and sexual experience-induced facilitation of sexual performance.&nbsp;... both drug addiction and sexual addiction represent pathological forms of neuroplasticity along with the emergence of aberrant behaviors involving a cascade of neurochemical changes mainly in the brain's rewarding circuitry.}}</ref><ref name="Natural and drug addictions">{{Cite journal|عنوان=Natural rewards, neuroplasticity, and non-drug addictions|تاريخ=December 2011|صحيفة=Neuropharmacology|العدد=7|DOI=10.1016/j.neuropharm.2011.03.010|المجلد=61|صفحات=1109–22|PMID=21459101|الأخير=Olsen CM}}</ref> ولكن ليس الاعتماد.
في الطبعة الرابعة من ''[[الدليل التشخيصي والإحصائي للاضطرابات النفسية]]'' (''DSM-IV'')، الاعتماد على مادة يتم تعريفه على أنه إدمان للمخدرات، و يمكنويمكن تشخيصه دون حدوث متلازمة الانسحاب.<ref>{{مرجعاستشهاد ويب
| مسار = http://behavenet.com/node/21516
| عنوان = Diagnostic criteria for Substance Dependence: DSM IV–TR
| وصلة مكسورة = no
| تاريخ الوصول = 12 June 2015
}}</ref> الآن يتم وصف الاعتماد على مادة كالتالي: "عندما يستمر الفرد في استخدام الكحول أو المخدرات الأخرى على الرغم من المشاكل المتعلقة باستخدام المادة، قد يمكن تشخيص الحالة بأنها اعتماد على مادة". الاستخدام القهري والمتكرر قد يؤدي إلى حدوث [[تحمل الدواء|تحمل]] لتأثير المادة و<nowiki/>[[أعراض انسحابية|أعراض الانسحاب]] عند انخفاض أو توقف الاستخدام. هذا الموضوع جنبا إلى جنب مع سوء استخدام المواد يعتبرا من اضطرابات تعاطي المواد."<ref>{{مرجعاستشهاد ويب
| مسار = http://behavenet.com/substance-dependence
| عنوان = Substance Dependence