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العمليات السرية أو [[تمويه|المموهة]] مثل عمليات ال[[تجسس]] التي تقوم بها مجموعات [[جريمة منظمة|الجريمة المنظمة]]، تتم مواجهتها من قبل [[وكالة تطبيق القانون|وكالات تطبيق القانون]] لضبط وكشف [[جريمة|الجرائم]]، وجمع المعلومات عن [[إتوقيف|عمليات القبض]] على منفذيها وتقديمهم لل[[محاكمة]].
 
==الاستخبارات العسكرية والسياسة الخارجية==
==Military intelligence and foreign policy==
 
Covert operations and [[clandestine operation]]s are distinct. The [[Department of Defense Dictionary of Military and Associated Terms]] (Joint Publication JP1-02), defines "covert operation" as "an [[Military operation|operation]] that is so planned and executed as to conceal the identity of or permit [[Plausible deniability|plausible denial]] by the sponsor. A covert operation differs from a clandestine operation in that emphasis is placed on concealment of identity of sponsor rather than on concealment of the operation." The [[United States Department of Defense]] definition has been used by the [[United States]] and [[NATO]] since [[World War II]].
[[عملية مموهة|العملية المموهة]] مُعرَّفة في [[قاموس وزارة الدفاع للمصطلحات العسكرية والملحقة]] بأنها "[[عملية عسكرية|عملية]] تم التخطيط لها وتنفيذها بحيث تخفي شخصية راعيها أو تسمح بإنكاره لها أو تحويل العبء على قيادات أصغر. وتختلف العملية المموهة عن [[العملية السرية|عملية سرية]] بأنها تهدف إلى إخفاء شخصية المسؤلين عن العملية بدلا من إخفاء أمر العملية ككل" {{إنج|"An operation that is so planned and executed as to conceal the identity of or permit plausible denial by the sponsor. A covert operation differs from a clandestine operation in that emphasis is placed on concealment of identity of sponsor rather than on concealment of the operation."}}. تم استخدام هذا التعريف الخاص ب[[وزارة دفاع الولايات المتحدة]] من قبل [[الولايات المتحدة]] وال[[ناتو]] منذ [[الحرب العالمية الثانية]].
 
In a covert operation, the identity of the sponsor is concealed, while in a clandestine operation the operation itself is concealed. Put differently, ''clandestine'' means "hidden," while ''covert'' means "[[Plausible deniability|deniable]]." The term ''[[stealth]]'' refers both to a broad set of [[tactic]]s aimed at providing and preserving the element of surprise and reducing enemy resistance and to a set of [[Technology|technologies]] ([[stealth technology]]) to aid in those tactics. While secrecy and stealthiness are often desired in clandestine and covert operations, the terms ''secret'' and ''stealthy'' are not used to formally describe types of missions.
 
The activity of organizations engaged in covert operations is in some instances similar to, or overlaps with, the activity of [[front organization]]s. While covert organizations are generally of a more official military or paramilitary nature, like the [[Deutsche Verkehrsfliegerschule|DVS German Air Transport School]] in the [[Nazi Germany|Nazi era]], the line between both becomes muddled in the case of front organizations engaged in [[Terrorist front organization|terrorist activities]] and organized crime.
 
{{seealso|Active measures}}
 
==Examples==
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