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|national_motto =
|النشيد =
|اللغة = [[لغة فارسية|الفارسية]] (رسمي<ref>Roemer, H. R. (1986). "The Safavid Period". ''The Cambridge History of Iran'', Vol. 6: The Timurid and Safavid Periods. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press. pp. 189–350. ISBN 0-521-20094-6. <!-- Excerpt from Page 331:"Depressing though the condition in the country may have been at the time of the fall of Safavids, they cannot be allowed to overshadow the achievements of the dynasty, which was in many respects to prove essential factors in the development of Persia in modern times. These include the maintanence of Persian as the official language and of the present-day boundaries of the country, adherence to the Twelever Shi'i, the monarchical system, the planning and architectural feartures of the urban centers, the centralised administration of the state and the symbiosis of the Persian-speaking population with important non-Persian, especially Turkish speaking minorities" --></ref>، سك العملة<ref name="MatheeIranica">Rudi Matthee, "Safavids" in ''Encyclopædia Iranica'' accessed on April 4, 2010: [https://www.iranica.com/articles/safavids]. <!-- Excerpts: "The Persian focus is also reflected in the fact that theological works also began to be composed in the Persian language and in that Persian verses replaced Arabic on the coins." and "The political system that emerged under them had overlapping political and religious boundaries and a core language, Persian, which served as the literary tongue, and even began to replace Arabic as the vehicle for theological discourse" {{Webarchive|url=http://web.archive.org/web/20120121220652/http://www.iranica.com/articles/safavids |date=21 يناير 2012}}</ref><ref>Ronald W. Ferrier, ''The Arts of Persia''. Yale University Press. 1989. pg 9</ref>، الإدارة المدنية<ref name="Perry">John R. Perry, "Turkic-Iranian contacts", ''Encyclopædia Iranica'', January 24, 2006. Excerpt: "..written Persian, the language of high literature and civil administration, remained virtually unaffected in status and content"</ref>،البلاط(عندما أصبحت اصفهان العاصمة)<ref>Cyril Glassé (ed.), ''The New Encyclopedia of Islam'', Lanham, Maryland: Rowman & Littlefield Publishers, revised ed., 2003, ISBN 0-7591-0190-6,Exceprt from: pg 392: "Shah Abbas moved his capital from [[قزوين]] to [[أصفهان (مدينة)|]]. His reigned marked the peak of Safavid dynasty's achievement in art, diplomacy, and commerce. It was probably around this time that the court, which originally spoke a Turkic language, began to use Persian" --></ref>،الفنون<ref name="Perry"/>، والآداب<ref name="مولد تلقائيا1">Rudi Matthee, "[http://www.iranicaonline.org/articles/safavids Safavids]" in ''Encyclopædia Iranica'', accessed on April 4, 2010. "The Persian focus is also reflected in the fact that theological works also began to be composed in the Persian language and in that Persian verses replaced Arabic on the coins." "The political system that emerged under them had overlapping political and religious boundaries and a core language, Persian, which served as the literary tongue, and even began to replace Arabic as the vehicle for theological discourse". {{Webarchive|url=http://web.archive.org/web/20170922011936/http://www.iranicaonline.org:80/articles/safavids |date=22 سبتمبر 2017}}</ref><ref>Arnold J. Toynbee, ''A Study of History'', V, pp. 514-15. <!-- excerpt: "in the heyday of the Mughal, Safawi, and Ottoman regimes New Persian was being patronized as the language of litterae humaniores by the ruling element over the whole of this huge realm, while it was also being employed as the official language of administration in those two-thirds of its realm that lay within the Safawi and the Mughal frontiers" --></ref>،الخطاب الديني<ref name="مولد تلقائيا1" />، المراسلات الدبلوماسية<ref name="mazzaoui">{{Citeمرجع bookكتاب
| lastالأخير = Mazzaoui
| firstالأول = Michel B
| وصلة المؤلف =
| authorlink =
|author2المؤلف2=Canfield, Robert
| yearالسنة = 2002
| titleالعنوان = Turko-Persia in Historical Perspective
| publisherالناشر = Cambridge University Press
| chapter = Islamic Culture and Literature in Iran and Central Asia in the early modern period
| isbn = 978-0-521-52291-5
| urlالمسار = https://books.google.com/books?id=qwwoozMU0LMC&pg=PA86#PPA87,M1
| pagesالصفحات = 86–7
| quote = Safavid power with its distinctive Persian-Shi'i culture, however, remained a middle ground between its two mighty Turkish neighbors. The Safavid state, which lasted at least until 1722, was essentially a "Turkish" dynasty, with Azeri Turkish (Azerbaijan being the family's home base) as the language of the rulers and the court as well as the Qizilbash military establishment. Shah Ismail wrote poetry in Turkish. The administration nevertheless was Persian, and the Persian language was the vehicle of diplomatic correspondence (insha'), of belles-lettres (adab), and of history (tarikh).}}</ref>، الكتابة الإنشائية<ref name="mazzaoui">{{Citeمرجع bookكتاب
| lastالأخير = Mazzaoui
| firstالأول = Michel B
| وصلة المؤلف =
| authorlink =
|author2المؤلف2=Canfield, Robert
| yearالسنة = 2002
| titleالعنوان = Turko-Persia in Historical Perspective
| publisherالناشر = Cambridge University Press
| chapter = Islamic Culture and Literature in Iran and Central Asia in the early modern period
| isbn = 978-0-521-52291-5
| urlالمسار = https://books.google.com/books?id=qwwoozMU0LMC&pg=PA86#PPA87,M1
| pagesالصفحات = 86–7
| quote = Safavid power with its distinctive Persian-Shi'i culture, however, remained a middle ground between its two mighty Turkish neighbors. The Safavid state, which lasted at least until 1722, was essentially a "Turkish" dynasty, with Azeri Turkish (Azerbaijan being the family's home base) as the language of the rulers and the court as well as the Qizilbash military establishment. Shah Ismail wrote poetry in Turkish. The administration nevertheless was Persian, and the Persian language was the vehicle of diplomatic correspondence (insha'), of belles-lettres (adab), and of history (tarikh).}}</ref>، علم التاريخ<ref name="mazzaoui">{{Citeمرجع bookكتاب
| lastالأخير = Mazzaoui
| firstالأول = Michel B
| وصلة المؤلف =
| authorlink =
|author2المؤلف2=Canfield, Robert
| yearالسنة = 2002
| titleالعنوان = Turko-Persia in Historical Perspective
| publisherالناشر = Cambridge University Press
| chapter = Islamic Culture and Literature in Iran and Central Asia in the early modern period
| isbn = 978-0-521-52291-5
| urlالمسار = https://books.google.com/books?id=qwwoozMU0LMC&pg=PA86#PPA87,M1
| pagesالصفحات = 86–7
| quote = Safavid power with its distinctive Persian-Shi'i culture, however, remained a middle ground between its two mighty Turkish neighbors. The Safavid state, which lasted at least until 1722, was essentially a "Turkish" dynasty, with Azeri Turkish (Azerbaijan being the family's home base) as the language of the rulers and the court as well as the Qizilbash military establishment. Shah Ismail wrote poetry in Turkish. The administration nevertheless was Persian, and the Persian language was the vehicle of diplomatic correspondence (insha'), of belles-lettres (adab), and of history (tarikh).}}</ref>، المحاكم الدينية<ref>Ruda Jurdi Abisaab. "Iran and Pre-Independence Lebanon" in Houchang Esfandiar Chehabi, ''Distant Relations: Iran and Lebanon in the Last 500 Years'', I.B.Tauris, Published 2006. pg 76<!-- : "Although the Arabic language was still the medium for religious scholastic expression, it was precisely under the Safavids that hadith complications and doctrinal works of all sorts were being translated to Persian. The 'Amili (Lebanese scholars of Shi'i faith) operating through the Court-based religious posts, were forced to master the Persian language; their students translated their instructions into Persian. Persianization went hand in hand with the popularization of 'mainstream' Shi'i belief." --></ref>) و[[لغة أذرية]] (بلاط، الشخصيات الدينية، الجيش)<ref name="mazzaoui">{{Citeمرجع bookكتاب
| lastالأخير = Mazzaoui
| firstالأول = Michel B
| وصلة المؤلف =
| authorlink =
|author2المؤلف2=Canfield, Robert
| yearالسنة = 2002
| titleالعنوان = Turko-Persia in Historical Perspective
| publisherالناشر = Cambridge University Press
| chapter = Islamic Culture and Literature in Iran and Central Asia in the early modern period
| isbn = 978-0-521-52291-5
| urlالمسار = https://books.google.com/books?id=qwwoozMU0LMC&pg=PA86#PPA87,M1
| pagesالصفحات = 86–7
| quote = Safavid power with its distinctive Persian-Shi'i culture, however, remained a middle ground between its two mighty Turkish neighbors. The Safavid state, which lasted at least until 1722, was essentially a "Turkish" dynasty, with Azeri Turkish (Azerbaijan being the family's home base) as the language of the rulers and the court as well as the Qizilbash military establishment. Shah Ismail wrote poetry in Turkish. The administration nevertheless was Persian, and the Persian language was the vehicle of diplomatic correspondence (insha'), of belles-lettres (adab), and of history (tarikh).}}</ref><ref name="savory07">{{مرجع كتاب
| الأخير = Savory
| وصلة المؤلف =
| المؤلفين المشاركين =
| سنةالسنة = 2007
| العنوان = Iran Under the Safavids
| الناشر= Cambridge University Press
| الرقم المعياري = 0521042518, ISBN 978-0-521-04251-2
| مسارالمسار = https://books.google.com/books?id=v4Yr4foWFFgC&pg=PA213
| الصفحات = 213
| quote = ''qizilbash normally spoke Azari brand of Turkish at court, as did the Safavid shahs themselves; lack of familiarity with the Persian language may have contributed to the decline from the pure classical standards of former times''
| وصلة المؤلف =
| المؤلفين المشاركين =
| سنةالسنة = 2005
| العنوان = Iran's Diverse Peoples: A Reference Sourcebook
| الناشر= ABC-CLIO
| الرقم المعياري = 1576079937, ISBN 978-1-57607-993-5
| مسارالمسار = https://books.google.com/books?id=gzpdq679oJwC&pg=PA66
| الصفحات = 66
| quote = ''The Shah was a native Turkic speaker and wrote poetry in the Azerbaijani language.''}}</ref>
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== علم الأنساب - أسلاف الصفويين وهويتهم متعددة الثقافات ==
 
يدعي الملوك الصفويين أنهم [[سيد|سادة]]<ref>In the pre-Safavid written work Safvat as-Safa (oldest manuscripts from 1485 and 1491), the origin of the Safavids is tracted to Piruz Shah Zarin Kolah who is called a Kurd from Sanjan, while in the post-Safavid manuscripts, this portion has been excised and Piruz Shah Zarin Kollah is made a descendant of the Imams. R Savory, "Ebn Bazzaz" in Encyclopædia Iranica). In the Silsilat an-nasab-i Safawiya (composed during the reign of Shah Suleiman, 1667–94), by Hussayn ibn Abdal Zahedi, the ancestry of the Safavid was purported to be tracing back to Hijaz and the first Shi'i Imam as follows: Shaykh Safi al-din Abul Fatah Eshaq ibn (son of) Shaykh Amin al-Din Jabrail ibn Qutb al-din ibn Salih ibn Muhammad al-Hafez ibn Awad ibn Firuz Shah Zarin Kulah ibn Majd ibn Sharafshah ibn Muhammad ibn Hasan ibn Seyyed Muhammad ibn Ibrahim ibn Seyyed Ja'afar ibn Seyyed Muhammad ibn Seyyed Isma'il ibn Seyyed Muhammad ibn Seyyed Ahmad 'Arabi ibn Seyyed Qasim ibn Seyyed Abul Qasim Hamzah ibn Musa al-Kazim ibn Ja'far As-Sadiq ibn Muhammad al-Baqir ibn Imam Zayn ul-'Abedin ibn Hussein ibn Ali ibn Abi Taleb Alayha as-Salam. There are differences between this and the oldest manuscript of Safwat as-Safa. Seyyeds have been added from Piruz Shah Zarin Kulah up to the first Shi'i Imam and the nisba "Al-Kurdi" has been excised. The title/name "Abu Bakr" (also the name of the first Caliph and highly regarded by Sunnis) is deleted from Qutb ad-Din's name. ُSource: Husayn ibn Abdāl Zāhedī, 17th cent. Silsilat al-nasab-i Safavīyah, nasabnāmah-'i pādishāhān bā ʻuzmat-i Safavī, ta'līf-i Shaykh Husayn pisar-i Shaykh Abdāl Pīrzādah Zāhedī dar 'ahd-i Shāh-i Sulaymnān-i Safavī. Berlīn, Chāpkhānah-'i Īrānshahr, 1343 (1924), 116 pp. Original Persian: شیخ صفی الدین ابو الفتح اسحق ابن شیخ امین الدین جبرائیل بن قطب الدین ابن صالح ابن محمد الحافظ ابن عوض ابن فیروزشاه زرین کلاه ابن محمد ابن شرفشاه ابن محمد ابن حسن ابن سید محمد ابن ابراهیم ابن سید جعفر بن سید محمد ابن سید اسماعیل بن سید محمد بن سید احمد اعرابی بن سید قاسم بن سید ابو القاسم حمزه بن [[موسی الکاظم]] ابن [[جعفر الصادق]] ابن [[محمد الباقر]] ابن امام [[زین العابدین]] بن حسین ابن [[علی ابن ابی طالب]] علیه السلام.</ref> من نسل [[النبي محمد]]، علي الرغم من أن الكثير من العلماء قد شكك بهذا الأدعاء.<ref> R.M. Savory, "Safavid Persia" in: Ann Katherine Swynford Lambton, Peter Malcolm Holt, Bernard Lewis, The Cambridge History of Islam, Cambridge University Press, 1977. p. 394: "They (Safavids after the establishment of the Safavid state) fabricated evidence to prove that the Safavids were Sayyids."</ref> ويبدو إن هناك أجماع شبه مطلق على إن العائلة الصفوية تنحدر من [[كردستان]] الفارسية،<ref> RM Savory, Safavids, Encyclopedia of Islam, 2nd ed.</ref> أنتقلوا إلى [[أذربيجان]]، ثم أستقروا في [[أردبيل|أدربيل]] خلال [[القرن الحادي عشر]] بعد الميلاد.
 
بحسب بعض المؤرخين،<ref> Tamara Sonn. A Brief History of Islam, Blackwell Publishing, 2004, p. 83, ISBN 1-4051-0900-9
^ Jump up to: a b</ref> مثل [[ريتشارد فراي]]، فإن الصفويين من أصل [[تركي]] [[إيراني]]:<ref> "Peoples of Iran" Encyclopædia Iranica. RN Frye.
Jump up ^</ref>
 
في المنطقة. هجرة [[الأوغوز]] الهائلة في القرنين الحادي عشر والثاني عشر لم تُترّك [[أذربيجان]] فحسب بل أيضا [[الأناضول]]. [[الأتراك الأذريين]] هم من الشيعة وكانوا مؤسسين للسلالة الصفوية.}}
 
مؤرخين آخرين مثل [[فلاديمير مينورسكي]]<ref> Minorsky, V (2009). "Adgharbaydjan (Azarbaydjan)". In Berman, P; Bianquis, Th; Bosworth, CE; van Donzel, E; Henrichs, WP. Encyclopedia of Islam (2nd ed.). NL: Brill. After 907/1502, Adharbayjan became the chielf bulwark and rallying ground of the Safawids, themselves natives of Ardabil and originally speaking the local Iranian dialect
Jump up ^</ref> وروجر سافوري، يؤيدان الفكرة التالية:<ref> Roger M. Savory. "Safavids" in Peter Burke, Irfan Habib, Halil İnalcık: History of Humanity-Scientific and Cultural Development: From the Sixteenth to the Eighteenth Century, Taylor & Francis. 1999, p. 259.
Jump up ^</ref>
 
{{quote|من الأدلة المتاحة في الوقت الحاضر، فمن المؤكد أن الأسرة الصفوية كانت من الأُسر الإيرانية الأصيلة، وليست من أصول التركية كما يدعي. ومن المحتمل أن تكون العائلة قد نشأت في [[كردستان]] الفارسية، ثم انتقلت بعد ذلك إلى [[أذربيجان]]، حيث تبنوا اللغة الأذربيجانية السائدة هناك، واستقرت في نهاية المطاف في بلدة [[أردبيل]] الصغيرة خلال [[القرن الحادي عشر]].}}
 
من الواضح هناك خلاف حول اصلهم بين عربي أو تركماني أو فارسي، إلا أن الوثائق التاريخية المعاصرة تؤكد انهم من العرق [[شعوب إيرانية|الإيراني]] ، من ذرية " [[فيروز شاه زرين كلاه]]" <ref>مجموعة باحثين ،الدولة الصفوية دراسة في الريخها وفكرها ، مركز المسبار ، دبي 2016 ، ص 170</ref><ref>د.أحمد الكسروي ، شيخ صفي وتبارش ، طهران ، 1332 ، ص 5</ref> <ref>61. منوچهر پارسادوست، شاه إسماعيل اول پادشاهى با اثر هاى دير پاى در إيران وإيراني، چاب دوم، تهران، 1381 ش/ 2003 م.</ref><ref>63. ميشيل مزاوي، بيدايش دولت صفوى، ترجمه: يعقوب آژند، تهران، 1343 ش/1965 م</ref><ref>11. "تذكرهء شاه طهماسب" شرح وقايع واحوالات زندگانى شاه طهماسب صفوى بقلم: خودش، برلن، 1343 ه/1924 م.</ref><ref>43. على أكبر ولايتى، تاريخ روابط خارجى إيران در عهد شاه إسماعيل صفوى، تهران، 1375 ش/ 1997 م.</ref>.
 
== خلفية - الطريقة الصوفية الصفوية ==
== التاريخ ==
=== تأسيس الدولة الصفوية على يد إسماعيل الصفوي ===
{{Main articleمفصلة|إسماعيل الصفوي}}
==== بلاد فارس قبل حكم إسماعيل الصفوي ====
بعد إنحسار [[الدولة التيمورية]] ([[1370]]-[[1506]])، [[بلاد فارس]] كانت مقسمة سياسياً، مما أعطى الفرصة لصعود عدد من الحركات الدينية، زوال سلطة [[تيمورلنك]] أفسح المجال للعديد من المجتمعات الدينية، خصوصاً الشيعية لتكتسب مقاماً مهماً، ومن بينها الجمعيات الصوفية، ك[[الحروفية]] و[[نقطاويش]] وغيرها من الحركات، وكان الصفويين مرنين سياسياً، أي أكثر تكيفاً مع المتغيرات السياسية، وبفضل نجاحهم حصل الشاه إسماعيل على مكانة سياسية مهمة عام [[1501]].<ref> Virani, Shafique N. The Ismailis in the Middle Ages: A History of Survival, A Search for Salvation (New York: Oxford University Press), 2007, p.113.
Jump up ^</ref> كان هناك العديد من الدول المحلية في [[إيران]] قبل الدولة الصفوية التي أسسها إسماعيل،<ref> The writer Ṛūmlu documented the most important of them in his history.
^ Jump up to: a b c d e</ref> ومن أهم القادة المحليين الذين حكموا منطقة [[بلاد فارس]] قبل [[إسماعيل الصفوي]] هم:
 
* الواند ميرزا حاكم من [[الخرفان البيض]] حكم [[تبريز]]
* مراد بغ حاكم من [[الخرفان البيض]] حكم [[عراق العجم]]
* فاروق ياسر شاه شروانشاه‎‎شروانشاه
* بادي الزمان ميرزا الحاكم المحلي ل[[بلخ]]
* حسين كيا كلافي الحاكم المحلي ل[[سمنان]]
* مراد بغ بندر الحاكم المحلي ل[[يزد]]
* سلطان محمد بن نازم الدين يحيى حاكم [[سيستان]]
* العديد من الحكام المحليين ل[[مازندران]] و[[غيلان]] مثل: بيسوتون الثاني، أشرف بن تاج الدولة، ميرزا ​​علي،علي، و كيا حسين الثاني
==== صعود الشاه إسماعيل الصفوي ====
تأسست الدولة الصفوية على يد الشاه إسماعيل الصفوي سنة [[1501]].<ref> "Ismail Safavi" Encyclopædia Iranica
^ Jump up to: a b c d</ref>
 
[[تصنيف:دول سابقة في الشرق الأوسط]]
[[تصنيف:دول سابقة في إيران]]
 
[[تصنيف:دول وأقاليم انحلت في 1736]]
[[تصنيف:سلالات حاكمة إيرانية]]
[[تصنيف:سلالات حاكمة مسلمة شيعية]]
[[تصنيف:تأسيسات سنة 1501 في آسيا]]
 
[[تصنيف:دول وأقاليم تأسست في 1501]]
 
[[تصنيف:تاريخ فارسي]]
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