إدمان (مخدرات): الفرق بين النسختين

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بوت:إضافة قالب تصفح {{الاضطرابات العقلية والسلوكية}}+تنظيف (8.6); تغييرات تجميلية
ط (بوت:إضافة قالب تصفح {{الاضطرابات العقلية والسلوكية}}+تنظيف (8.6); تغييرات تجميلية)
{{معلومات مرض|Name=الاعتماد على مادة|field=[[علم نفس]]|Field=[[علم نفس]]|ICD10={{ICD10|F|10||f|10}}.2-{{ICD10|F|19||f|10}}.2|ICD9={{ICD9|303}}-{{ICD9|304}}|MeshID=D019966}}'''الاعتماد على مادة '''المعروف أيضا باسم '''الاعتماد على المخدرات''' هي حالة تكيفية تنتج من تكرار تعاطي مادة أو <nowiki/>[[عقار (مادة كيميائية)|دواء]]، مما يؤدي إلى أعراض ا<nowiki/>[[أعراض انسحابية|نسحابية]] عند التوقف عن الاستخدام.<ref name="NHM terms-DSM flaw">{{مرجع كتاب|title=Molecular Neuropharmacology: A Foundation for Clinical Neuroscience|publisher=McGraw-Hill Medical|year=2009|ISBN=9780071481274|edition=2nd|pages=364–368|chapter=Chapter 15: Reinforcement and Addictive Disorders|quote=The defining feature of addiction is compulsive, out-of-control drug use, despite negative consequences.&nbsp;...<br /></span>Addictive drugs are both rewarding and reinforcing.&nbsp;... Familiar pharmacologic terms such as tolerance, dependence, and sensitization are useful in describing some of the time-dependent processes that underlie addiction.&nbsp;... <br />''Dependence'' is defined as an adaptive state that develops in response to repeated drug administration, and is unmasked during ''withdrawal'', which occurs when drug taking stops. Dependence from long-term drug use may have both a somatic component, manifested by physical symptoms, and an emotional–motivation component, manifested by dysphoria. While physical dependence and withdrawal occur with some drugs of abuse (opiates, ethanol), these phenomena are not useful in the diagnosis of addiction because they do not occur with other drugs of abuse (cocaine, amphetamine) and can occur with many drugs that are not abused (propranolol, clonidine).<br /><br />The official diagnosis of drug addiction by the Diagnostic and Statistic Manual of Mental Disorders (2000), which makes distinctions between drug use, abuse, and substance dependence, is flawed. First, diagnosis of drug use versus abuse can be arbitrary and reflect cultural norms, not medical phenomena. Second, the term substance dependence implies that dependence is the primary pharmacologic phenomenon underlying addiction, which is likely not true, as tolerance, sensitization, and learning and memory also play central roles. It is ironic and unfortunate that the Manual avoids use of the term addiction, which provides the best description of the clinical syndrome.}}</ref><ref name="NIH">{{مرجع ويب
| url = https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmedhealth/PMH0002490/
| title = Substance use disorder
== وصلات خارجية ==
 
* [http://www.asam.org/ موقع جمعية طب الإدمان الأمريكية]
* [http://om911.com/the-ukraine-sex-drug-addiction-poverty-and-aids-in-2011.html الأشخاص، مدمنو المخدرات]
* [https://www.pbs.org/wgbh/pages/frontline/shows/drugs/buyers/socialhistory.html تاريخ اجتماعي لأشهر مخدرات أمريكا]
* [http://ec.europa.eu/health-eu/my_lifestyle/drugs/index_en.htm Health-EU Portal – Drugs]
* National Institute on Drug Abuse: "[http://teens.drugabuse.gov/drug-facts/brain-and-addiction NIDA for Teens: Brain and Addiction العقل والإدمان]".
* {{مرجع ويب
| url = http://apps.who.int/medicinedocs/fr/d/Js4896e/9.html
| accessdate = 26 February 2015
}} - [http://apps.who.int/medicinedocs/pdf/s4896e/s4896e.pdf pdf]
* [http://jari.podbean.com/2013/01/14/trips-beyond-addiction-special-program-for-living-hero-w-jari-chevalier-radio-show-at-wgdrorg/ Trips Beyond Addiction] | Living Hero Radio Show and Podcast special. With Dimitri Mobengo Mugianis, Bovenga Na Muduma, Clare S. Wilkins, Brad Burge, Tom Kingsley Brown, Susan Thesenga, Bruce K. Alexander, PhD ~ the voices of ex-addicts, researchers from The Multidisciplinary Association for Psychedelic Studies and Ibogaine/Iboga/Ayahuasca treatment providers sharing their experiences in breaking addiction with native medicines. January 2013
 
<div class="cx-template-editor-source-container" lang="en" dir="ltr" style="display: none;"><div class="cx-template-editor-source"><div class="cx-template-editor-title" title="Formats a citation to a website using the provided information such as URL and title. Used only for sources that are not correctly described by the specific citation templates for books, journals, news sources, etc.">Cite web</div><div class="cx-template-editor-param"><div class="cx-template-editor-param-title"><span id="url" class="cx-template-editor-param-key">URL</span><span data-key="url" title="The URL of the online location where the text of the publication can be found. Requires schemes of the type &quot;http://...&quot; or maybe even the  protocol relative scheme &quot;//...&quot;" class="cx-template-editor-param-desc"></span></div><div class="cx-template-editor-param-value" data-key="url" style="position: relative;"><nowiki>http://apps.who.int/medicinedocs/fr/d/Js4896e/9.html</nowiki></div></div><div class="cx-template-editor-param"><div class="cx-template-editor-param-title"><span id="title" class="cx-template-editor-param-key">Title</span><span data-key="title" title="The title of the source page on the website; will display with quotation marks added. Usually found at the top of you web browser. Not the name of the website." class="cx-template-editor-param-desc"></span></div><div class="cx-template-editor-param-value" data-key="title" style="position: relative;">WHO Expert Committee on Drug Dependence – WHO Technical Report Series, No. 915 – Thirty-third Report</div></div><div class="cx-template-editor-param"><div class="cx-template-editor-param-title"><span id="date" class="cx-template-editor-param-key">Source date</span><span data-key="date" title="Full date when the source was published; if unknown, use access-date instead; do not wikilink" class="cx-template-editor-param-desc"></span></div><div class="cx-template-editor-param-value" data-key="date" style="position: relative;">2003</div></div><div class="cx-template-editor-param"><div class="cx-template-editor-param-title"><span id="website" class="cx-template-editor-param-key">Website</span><span data-key="website" title="Name of the website; may be wikilinked; will display in italics. Having both 'Publisher' and 'Website' is redundant in most cases" class="cx-template-editor-param-desc"></span></div><div class="cx-template-editor-param-value" data-key="website" style="position: relative;">apps.who.int</div></div><div class="cx-template-editor-param"><div class="cx-template-editor-param-title"><span id="access-date" class="cx-template-editor-param-key">URL access date</span><span data-key="access-date" title="The full date when the original URL was accessed; do not wikilink" class="cx-template-editor-param-desc"></span></div><div class="cx-template-editor-param-value" data-key="access-date" style="position: relative;">26 February 2015</div></div></div></div>
{{تصنيف كومنز|Substance dependence}}
{{شريط بوابات|القانون|صيدلة|طب|علم النفس}}
{{الاضطرابات العقلية والسلوكية}}
 
[[تصنيف:اعتماد على المواد]]
[[تصنيف:تشخيص الأمراض النفسية]]
2٬137٬169

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