أبواكيات: الفرق بين النسختين

تم إضافة 2٬956 بايت ، ‏ قبل سنة واحدة
'''الأبواكيات''' ([[الاسم العلمي]]:Apoikozoa) هي [[أصنوفة]] من [[حقيقيات النوى]] تتبع ال[[خيطانيات]].
==التصنيف==
في مخطط التفرع التطوري التالي، يشار إلى ما يقرب من مليون سنة مضت (Mya)، تباعد الأصنوفات من الأقدم إلى الأحدث.<ref>{{Cite journal|last=Peterson|first=Kevin J.|last2=Cotton|first2=James A.|last3=Gehling|first3=James G.|last4=Pisani|first4=Davide|date=2008-04-27|title=The Ediacaran emergence of bilaterians: congruence between the genetic and the geological fossil records |url=http://rstb.royalsocietypublishing.org/content/363/1496/1435 |journal=Philosophical Transactions of the Royal Society of London B: Biological Sciences |volume=363 |issue=1496|pages=1435–1443|doi=10.1098/rstb.2007.2233 |pmid=18192191|pmc=2614224}}</ref><ref>{{Cite journal|last=Parfrey|first=Laura Wegener|last2=Lahr|first2=Daniel J. G.|last3=Knoll|first3=Andrew H.|last4=Katz |first4=Laura A.|date=2011-08-16|title=Estimating the timing of early eukaryotic diversification with multigene molecular clocks|url=http://www.pnas.org/content/108/33/13624|journal=Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences |volume=108 |issue=33 |pages=13624–13629 |doi=10.1073/pnas.1110633108 |pmid=21810989|pmc=3158185}}</ref><ref>{{Cite journal|last=Hehenberger |first=Elisabeth|last2=Tikhonenkov|first2=Denis V.|last3=Kolisko |first3=Martin |last4=Campo |first4=Javier del|last5=Esaulov |first5=Anton S.|last6=Mylnikov|first6=Alexander P.|last7=Keeling|first7=Patrick J.|title=Novel Predators Reshape Holozoan Phylogeny and Reveal the Presence of a Two-Component Signaling System in the Ancestor of Animals |url=http://linkinghub.elsevier.com/retrieve/pii/S0960982217307078|journal=Current Biology |volume=27| issue=13 |pages=2043–2050.e6 |doi=10.1016/j.cub.2017.06.006|year=2017}}</ref> (Note that the later Budd and Jensen paper gives significantly younger dates. See also [[Kimberella]])
 
{{Clade|{{clade
|label1=[[Holomycota]]
|1={{clade
|label1=[[Zoosporia]]
|1={{clade
|[[Fungi]] [[File:Asco1013.jpg|60 px]]
|[[Opisthosporidia]] [[File:Fibrillanosema spore.jpg|60 px]]
}}
|label2=[[Cristidiscoidea]]
|2={{clade
|1=[[Nucleariid]]a [[File:Nuclearia sp Nikko.jpg|60 px]]
|2=[[Fonticulida]]
}}
}}
|label2=[[Holozoa]] |sublabel2=1100 mya
|2={{clade
|1=[[Ichthyosporea]] [[File:Abeoforma whisleri-2.jpg|60 px]]
|2={{clade
|label1=[[Pluriformea]]
|1={{clade
|[[Syssomonas]]
|[[Corallochytrium]] [[File:Corallochytrium limacisporum.png|60 px]]
}}
|label2=[[Filozoa]]
|2={{clade
|1=[[Filasterea]] [[File:Ministeria vibrans.jpeg|60 px]]
|label2='''Apoikozoa''' |sublabel2=950 mya
|2={{clade
|1=[[Choanoflagellatea]] [[File:Desmarella moniliformis.jpg|60 px]]
|2=[[Animal]]ia [[File:Comb jelly.jpg|45 px]]
}}
}}}}}}}}|style=font-size:100%; line-height:100%|label1=[[Opisthokonta]] |sublabel1=1300 mya
}}
 
==أنظر أيضاً==
==مراجع==
114٬875

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