إدمان (مخدرات): الفرق بين النسختين

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وسم: تعديل مصدر 2017
وسم: تعديل مصدر 2017
{{معلومات مرض|Name=Substanceالاعتماد dependenceعلى مادة|field=[[Psychiatryعلم نفس]]|Field=[[علم نفس]]|ICD10={{ICD10|F|10||f|10}}.2-{{ICD10|F|19||f|10}}.2|ICD9={{ICD9|303}}-{{ICD9|304}}|MeshID=D019966}}'''الاعتماد على مادة '''المعروف أيضا باسم '''الاعتماد على المخدرات''' هي حالة تكيفية تنتج من تكرار تعاطي مادة أو <nowiki/>[[عقار (مادة كيميائية)|دواء]]، مما يؤدي إلى أعراض ا<nowiki/>[[أعراض انسحابية|نسحابية]] عند التوقف عن الاستخدام.<ref name="NHM terms-DSM flaw">{{مرجع كتاب|title=Molecular Neuropharmacology: A Foundation for Clinical Neuroscience|publisher=McGraw-Hill Medical|year=2009|ISBN=9780071481274|edition=2nd|pages=364–368|chapter=Chapter 15: Reinforcement and Addictive Disorders|quote=The defining feature of addiction is compulsive, out-of-control drug use, despite negative consequences.&nbsp;...<br ></span>Addictive drugs are both rewarding and reinforcing.&nbsp;... Familiar pharmacologic terms such as tolerance, dependence, and sensitization are useful in describing some of the time-dependent processes that underlie addiction.&nbsp;... <br />''Dependence'' is defined as an adaptive state that develops in response to repeated drug administration, and is unmasked during ''withdrawal'', which occurs when drug taking stops. Dependence from long-term drug use may have both a somatic component, manifested by physical symptoms, and an emotional–motivation component, manifested by dysphoria. While physical dependence and withdrawal occur with some drugs of abuse (opiates, ethanol), these phenomena are not useful in the diagnosis of addiction because they do not occur with other drugs of abuse (cocaine, amphetamine) and can occur with many drugs that are not abused (propranolol, clonidine).<br /><br />The official diagnosis of drug addiction by the Diagnostic and Statistic Manual of Mental Disorders (2000), which makes distinctions between drug use, abuse, and substance dependence, is flawed. First, diagnosis of drug use versus abuse can be arbitrary and reflect cultural norms, not medical phenomena. Second, the term substance dependence implies that dependence is the primary pharmacologic phenomenon underlying addiction, which is likely not true, as tolerance, sensitization, and learning and memory also play central roles. It is ironic and unfortunate that the Manual avoids use of the term addiction, which provides the best description of the clinical syndrome.}}</ref><ref name="NIH">{{مرجع ويب
| url = https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmedhealth/PMH0002490/
| title = Substance use disorder