افتح القائمة الرئيسية

تغييرات

تم إزالة 1٬632 بايت ، ‏ قبل سنة واحدة
ط
استرجاع (تخريب)
{{مقالة غير مراجعة|تاريخ=يناير 2010}}
????? ?????? ???????? ???? ??? ???? ???? ??? ??????? ??? ??? ?? ?? ??????? ???? ???? ????? ?????? ??? ???? ?? ??? ????? ?????? ?????? ???? ????? ??? ??? ????? ????? ??????? ????????[76] ????? ????? ????? ?? ??????[77][78] ????????? ??????? ?? ???????????[78] ????? ????? ??????? ????? ????? ??????? ??????? ??????? ????? ??????? ???????? ??? ???? ????? ???? ?????? ???????? ??? ???? ??????? ??? ???? ??? ???? ??? ??? ????? ???? ??????? ???????? ???? ?????? ????? ??????? ???????? ??? ?????? ???? ??????? ?? ???.[76] ???? ??????? ??? ???? ?????? ??????? ????? ??????? ??? ?????? ????????? ????????? ????? ??????? ??? ?????? ???? ?????? ???????. ??? ??? ?? ??? ?? ?????? ????????? ?? ???????????? ????????? ??? ??? ????? ??? ?????? ?? ??????? ??? ????? ?? ????? ?????? ?????? ??????? ???????? ?? ????? ????? ?????? ??? ?? ???? ??????? ????????? ?????.[79][80]
{{SignSymptom infobox |
Name = Polyuria |
Image = ADH3.svg|
Caption = Regulation of urine production by ADH and aldosterone|
ICD10 = {{ت.د.أ.10|R|35||r|30}} |
ICD9 = {{ت.د.أ.9|788.42}} |
MeshID = D011141 |
MedlinePlus = 003146
}}
'''البوال''' {{إنج|Polyuria}} أو تعدد البيلات، وهي حالة تصف زيادة كمية [[البول]] المطروحة لأكثر من 2.5ليتر خلال 24 ساعة لدى البالغ.<ref>{{cite web|title=Polyuria|url=http://www.merckmanuals.com/professional/genitourinary_disorders/symptoms_of_genitourinary_disorders/polyuria.html|website=Merck Manuals|accessdate=30 December 2014|date=November 2013}}</ref><ref>{{Cite book|title = Case Scenarios in Pediatric and Adolescent Practice|url = https://books.google.com/books?id=i_2YAwAAQBAJ&pg=PA352&dq=primary+polydipsia+causes+polyuria&hl=en&sa=X&ved=0CCIQ6AEwAWoVChMI-d2fxNiSxwIVzJqACh09BAF3#v=onepage&q=primary%2520polydipsia%2520causes%2520polyuria&f=false|publisher = JP Medical Ltd|date = 2014-04-30|isbn = 9789351520931|first = A.|last = Parthasarathy}}</ref><ref>{{Cite book|title = The Overactive Bladder: Evaluation and Management|url = https://books.google.com/books?id=rbjibqsVYCQC&pg=PA56&dq=polyuria+treatment&hl=en&sa=X&ved=0CEoQ6AEwBmoVChMI_sqHjv6MxwIVRooNCh30Bgy9#v=onepage&q=polyuria%2520treatment&f=false|publisher = CRC Press|date = 2007-07-10|isbn = 9780203931622|first = Karl|last = Kreder|first2 = Roger|last2 = Dmochowski}}</ref>
 
== الأسباب ==
?????? ??? ???? ?????? 18 ???? 1869 ?????? ??????? ?????????????? ???? ????? ???????? ??? ????? ??????? ??? ??????? ??????? ????? ????? ??? ??????? ??? ???? ????? ?? ??????? ???? ?? ???? ???? ???? ??? ??? ??? ??? ?????? ??????? ?? ???? ??? ???????? ????? ???????? ???? ???? ??????? ??????? ????? ???? ????? ?????? ??? ??? 1881 ???? ??? ????? ??????? ??????? ??? ????? ???????? ??????? ?????? ???????? ??????? ??????? ???????? ?????????? ??? ???.[81]
 
* زيادة كمية السوائلة المتناولة، خاصةً [[الماء]].
????? ?? ?? ??????? ?????????? ??? ??? ??????? ??????? ???? ??? ???????? ?? ??????? ???? ???? (1914-1917) ??? ??? ??????? ??? ??? ????? ??? ???????? ??? ???? ??????? ???? ???? ?????? ??????? ??? ????? ???????? ?? 1914 ?? ????? ????? ???????? ??????. ??? ?????? ???? ??????? ??????? ?????????? ??? ???? ?? ???? ????? ?? ???? ???? ????? ???? ??? ?????? ??? ??? ??? 1922 ????? ???? ??? ??? ??????? ???????.[82][83]
* دوائية (المدرات البولية)
???????
* بعض الأطعمة : الأطعمة التي تحتوي مادة [[الكافئين]] (الشوكولاته، القهوة، الشاي)، [[التوابل]]، العصير عالي الحموضة، [[الكحول]]...الخ
* الداء [[السكري]].
* [[بوالة تفهة|البيلة التفهة]].
* [[السهاف]].
* الجرعات العالية من [[فيتامين]] B12.
* الجرعات العالية من فيتامين C.
* متلازمة فقد الملح الدماغية المنشأ.
* التهاب [[المثانة]] الخلالي.
* التهاب [[الكلية]] الخلالي.
* فرط نشاط [[الغدة الدرقية]].
* قصور [[الغدة النخامية]].
* الحمل.
* [[متلازمة رايتر]].
* التهاب كبيبات الكلى.
* [[السرطان]].
* نقص الألدوستيرونية.
* نقص [[بوتاسيوم]] [[الدم]].
* فرط [[كالسيوم]] الدم.
* [[داء أديسون]].
* [[قصور القلب الاحتقاني]].
* [[متلازمة كوشينغ]].
* المعالجة [[الليثيوم|بالليثيوم]].
* [[الشقيقة]].
* استخدام [[الستيروئيدات]] مثل [[البردنيزولون]].
* فرط سكر الدم.
* نقص الأكسجة.
* نقص الحجم.
* [[القصور الكلوي المزمن]].
== مراجع ==
{{مراجع}}
 
{{إخلاء مسؤولية طبية}}
Crystal Clear app kdict.png ????? ?????: ??????? ???????
 
{{شريط بوابات|طب}}
????? ?????? ??? ???? ??? ??????? ??? ???? ???? ???? ?????? ?? ???? ??? ???? ?????.
 
{{بذرة طب}}
??? ????? ??? ????? ???? ???? 1919 ??????????? ???? ??????? ????? ???????? ?? ??? ???? ????? ????? ??????? ??????? ??? ??? ??? ??? ? "????? 28 ?????? 1922" ????? ??? ??????? ?? ????? ????? ??????? ???????.[84]
??? ??? 1923 ?????? "???? ????????" ???? ???? ????? 1923? ?????? ??? ???? ????? ?? ????? ??? ???????? ??? ??? ??? ????????. ?? ??? ?????? 1936 ???? 20 ???? ??? ??? ?????????? ??????? ??? ?? ??? ???? ??? 8 ?????? 1951 ????? ???? ??????? ????? ??????? ??????? ??????? ??? 1899? ?? ???? ??? ?????? ???????? ???? 3 ???? ??? ???? ??????? ?????? ??? ????? ????? ??? 27 ????? 1952? ?? ????? ???? ?? ????? ?????? ?? 1952 ??? ????? ????? ????? ??????? ??? ?????? ?? ??? ???????? ????? ?????? ???? ???? ?????? ??? ???? ????[85] ?? ????? ????????? ??? 18 ????? 1953.[86][87]
?????????
 
[[تصنيف:أعراض وعلامات الجهاز البولي]]
Crystal Clear app kdict.png ?????? ?????: ???? 23 ????? ???? ???? ???? ??? ?????? ???? ???????
 
Crystal Clear app kdict.png ???? ?????: ??? ?????????? ???? 6 ??????? ??????? ???? ?????
???? ???? ?????? ????? ???????? ??? ???????.
 
?? 23 ????? 1952 ??? ?????? ???? ???? ????? ?????? ??????? ?????? ??????? ????? ??????? ?????? ????? ??????? ??? ??????? ?? ?????? ???? ?? ??????? �?????? ????????� ???? ????? ????? ????? "???? 23 ?????"?[88][89] ??? ??? 1953 ????? ????????? ??? ?????? ?????? ???? ???? ??? ???? ????????? ????? ????? ???????[90] ?? ???? ???? ??? ?????? ????? ??? ??????? ?? ?????? ?? ????? ??????? ?????? ?? ???????? ???? ??????? ?? ????? ??????? ???????? ??? ????? ????? ??????? ???????? ?? ??? 1958 ????? ??? ?????? ??? ???? ????????? ??????? ??????? ???? ????? ??? 1961? ??? ????? ???? ?????? 1960-1970? ??? ???? ?????? ????? ??????? ?? ????????? ?? ??? ??? ??????.[91][92]
 
???? ??????? ?? 5 ????? 1967 ??? ???? ??? ??? ?????? ??????? ?????? ????? ???????? ?????? ??????? ???? ??????� ????? ??? ???? ??? ????????? ??????? ??? ????? ??????? ??? ????? ?????? ??? ??? 1970 ???? ???? ??? ?????? ????? ?? ???? ????? ???? ???? ??????? ???? ??? ?????? ????? ????? ????? ?? ??????? ?????? ??????? ???????.[93][94]
??? ????? ?????? ??? ????? ????? ??? ??????
 
?? 6 ??????? 1973 ?? ???? ??????? ?????? ???? ?????? ??????? ??????? ??????? ??????? ??????? ??????? ?????? ??????? ??? ?????? ??????????? ?? ?? ?? ??? ????? ????? ???????? ??? ?? ??? ???? ??? ?????? ?? ??? ?????? ?? ?????. ???? ????? ??? ?????? ??????? ??????? ?????? ???????? ????? ?????? ??????? ??? ????? ??????? ???????? ??????? ??? ????? ??????? ?????? ?? ??????? ??? 22 ?????? ????? ??? ??? ??????? ??? ????? ?????? ????? ?????? ??????? ?? ???????? ?????? ????????.[95][96]
 
?? ??? 1977 ???? ?????? ??????? ???? ??????? ???? ?? ?????? ?????????? ????? ??????? ???? ????? ?????? ?????? ?? ????? ???????[97] ???? ??????? ?????? ???? ??? ????? ???? ?? ??????? ???? ???? ?????? ??????? ?????? ?? ????? ?? 25 ????? 1982 ??? ???? ???? ??????? ????? ????? ??????? ???? ??? ????? ??? ?? ??? ????????? ???? ??????? ??? ????? ?????? ?? ????? ??????? ???? ??? ?????????? ??? ????? ????? ??? ?? ????? ????? ??????? ?? ??? 1979 ??? ??? 1989.[98][99]