افتح القائمة الرئيسية

تغييرات

تم إزالة 532 بايت ، ‏ قبل سنة واحدة
ط
بوت :عنونة مرجع غير معنون
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|اللغة = [[لغة فارسية|الفارسية]] (رسمي<ref>Roemer, H. R. (1986). "The Safavid Period". ''The Cambridge History of Iran'', Vol. 6: The Timurid and Safavid Periods. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press. pp. 189–350. ISBN 0-521-20094-6. <!-- Excerpt from Page 331:"Depressing though the condition in the country may have been at the time of the fall of Safavids, they cannot be allowed to overshadow the achievements of the dynasty, which was in many respects to prove essential factors in the development of Persia in modern times. These include the maintanence of Persian as the official language and of the present-day boundaries of the country, adherence to the Twelever Shi'i, the monarchical system, the planning and architectural feartures of the urban centers, the centralised administration of the state and the symbiosis of the Persian-speaking population with important non-Persian, especially Turkish speaking minorities" --></ref>، سك العملة<ref name="MatheeIranica">Rudi Matthee, "Safavids" in ''Encyclopædia Iranica'' accessed on April 4, 2010: [https://www.iranica.com/articles/safavids]. <!-- Excerpts: "The Persian focus is also reflected in the fact that theological works also began to be composed in the Persian language and in that Persian verses replaced Arabic on the coins." and "The political system that emerged under them had overlapping political and religious boundaries and a core language, Persian, which served as the literary tongue, and even began to replace Arabic as the vehicle for theological discourse"</ref><ref>Ronald W. Ferrier, ''The Arts of Persia''. Yale University Press. 1989. pg 9</ref>، الإدارة المدنية<ref name="Perry">John R. Perry, "Turkic-Iranian contacts", ''Encyclopædia Iranica'', January 24, 2006. Excerpt: "..written Persian, the language of high literature and civil administration, remained virtually unaffected in status and content"</ref>،البلاط(عندما أصبحت اصفهان العاصمة)<ref>Cyril Glassé (ed.), ''The New Encyclopedia of Islam'', Lanham, Maryland: Rowman & Littlefield Publishers, revised ed., 2003, ISBN 0-7591-0190-6,Exceprt from: pg 392: "Shah Abbas moved his capital from [[قزوين]] to [[أصفهان (مدينة)|]]. His reigned marked the peak of Safavid dynasty's achievement in art, diplomacy, and commerce. It was probably around this time that the court, which originally spoke a Turkic language, began to use Persian" --></ref>،الفنون<ref name="Perry"/>، والآداب<ref name="MatheeIranicaمولد تلقائيا1">Rudi Matthee, "[http://www.iranicaonline.org/articles/safavids Safavids]" in ''Encyclopædia Iranica'', accessed on April 4, 2010. "The Persian focus is also reflected in the fact that theological works also began to be composed in the Persian language and in that Persian verses replaced Arabic on the coins." "The political system that emerged under them had overlapping political and religious boundaries and a core language, Persian, which served as the literary tongue, and even began to replace Arabic as the vehicle for theological discourse".</ref><ref>Arnold J. Toynbee, ''A Study of History'', V, pp. 514-15. <!-- excerpt: "in the heyday of the Mughal, Safawi, and Ottoman regimes New Persian was being patronized as the language of litterae humaniores by the ruling element over the whole of this huge realm, while it was also being employed as the official language of administration in those two-thirds of its realm that lay within the Safawi and the Mughal frontiers" --></ref>،الخطاب الديني<ref name="MatheeIranica">Rudi Matthee,مولد تلقائيا1"[http://www.iranicaonline.org/articles/safavids Safavids]" in ''Encyclopædia Iranica'', accessed on April 4, 2010. "The Persian focus is also reflected in the fact that theological works also began to be composed in the Persian language and in that Persian verses replaced Arabic on the coins." "The political system that emerged under them had overlapping political and religious boundaries and a core language, Persian, which served as the literary tongue, and even began to replace Arabic as the vehicle for theological discourse".</ref>، المراسلات الدبلوماسية<ref name="mazzaoui">{{Cite book
| last = Mazzaoui
| first = Michel B