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Froese, Paul. "'I am an atheist and a Muslim': Islam, communism, and ideological competition." Journal of Church and State 47.3 (2005)</ref> ودمرت ال[[كنائس]] وال[[مساجد]] وال[[معابد]]، سَخِرت من القيادات الدينينة وعرضتهم للمضايقات ونفذت بهم أحكام الإعدام، وأغرقت المدارس ووسائل الإعلام بتعاليم الإلحاد، وبشكل عام روجت للإلحاد على أنه الحقيقة التي يجب على المجتمع تقبلها.<ref name="Paul Froese 2004 pp. 35-50">Paul Froese. Forced Secularization in Soviet Russia: Why an Atheistic Monopoly Failed. Journal for the Scientific Study of Religion, Vol. 43, No. 1 (Mar., 2004), pp. 35-50</ref><ref name="Haskins, Ekaterina V 2009">Haskins, Ekaterina V. "Russia's postcommunist past: the Cathedral of Christ the Savior and the reimagining of national identity." History and Memory: Studies in Representation of the Past 21.1 (2009)</ref> العدد الإجمالي لضحايا سياسات دولة السوفييت الإلحادية من المسيحيين تم تقديره بما يتراوح بين 12-20 مليون.<ref>”''Estimates of the total number all Christian martyrs in the former Soviet Union are about 12 million.''”, James M. Nelson, [http://books.google.com/books?id=LBv_K9Q0Z6gC&printsec=frontcover&hl=en&redir_esc=y#v=onepage&q=%22Estimates%20of%20the%20total%20number%20all%20Christian%20martyrs%20in%20the%20former%20Soviet%20Union%20are%20about%2012%20million%22&f=false “Psychology, Religion, and Spirituality”], Springer, 2009, ISBN 0-387-87572-7, p. 427 {{Webarchive|url=http://web.archive.org/web/20170510095912/https://books.google.com/books?id=LBv_K9Q0Z6gC&printsec=frontcover&hl=en&redir_esc=y |date=10 مايو 2017}}</ref><ref>”''In all, it is estimated that some 15 to 20 million Christians were martyred under the Soviet regime''”, David Barrett, “World Christian Trends”, Pasadena: William Carey Library, 2001, cited by David Taylor, [http://books.google.com/books?id=_hucuXe0SkMC&printsec=frontcover&hl=en#v=onepage&q=%22In%20all,%20it%20is%20estimated%20that%20some%2015%20to%2020%20million%20Christians%20were%20martyred%20under%20the%20Soviet%20regime%22&f=false ”21 Signs of His Coming: Major Biblical Prophecies Being Fulfilled In Our Generation”], Taylor Publishing Group, 2009, ISBN 0-9762933-4-X, p. 220 {{Webarchive|url=http://web.archive.org/web/20170510093842/https://books.google.com/books?id=_hucuXe0SkMC&printsec=frontcover&hl=en |date=10 مايو 2017}}</ref><ref>”''over 20 million were martyred in Soviet prison camps''”, Todd M. Johnson, [http://icl.nd.edu/assets/84231/the_demographics_of_christian_martyrdom_todd_johnson.pdf “Christian Martyrdom: A global demographic assessment“], p. 4 {{Webarchive|url=http://web.archive.org/web/20160303220215/http://icl.nd.edu/assets/84231/the_demographics_of_christian_martyrdom_todd_johnson.pdf |date=03 مارس 2016}}</ref>
استمرت المعتقدات والممارسات الدينية بين الغالبية العظمى من السكان،<ref name="Paul Froese 2004 pp. 35-50"/> في الميادين المحلية والخاصة ولكن أيضًا في الأماكن العامة المنتشرة المسموح بها من قبل الدولة التي اعترفت بفشلها في استئصال الدين والأخطار السياسية من اندلاع حرب ثقافية لا هوادة فيها.<ref name="Daniel, Wallace L 2009"/><ref>John Shelton Curtis, ''The Russian Church and the Soviet State'' (Boston: Little Brown, 1953); Jane Ellis, ''The Russian Orthodox Church: A Contemporary History'' (Bloomington: Indiana University Press, 1986); Dimitry V. Pospielovsky, ''The Russian Church Under the Soviet Regime 1917-1982'' (St. Vladimir’s Seminary Press, 1984); idem., ''A History of Marxist-Leninist Atheism and Soviet Anti-Religious Policies'' (New York; St. Martin’s Press, 1987); Glennys Young, P''ower and the Sacred in Revolutionary Russia: Religious Activists in the Village'' (University Park: Pennsylvania State University Press, 1997); Daniel Peris, ''Storming the Heavens: The Soviet League of the Militant Godless'' (Ithaca: Cornell University Press, 1998); William B. Husband, ''“Godless Communists”: Atheism and Society in Soviet Russia'' DeKalb: Northern Illinois University Press, 2000; Edward Roslof, ''Red Priests: Renovationism, Russian Orthodoxy, and Revolution, 1905-1946'' (Bloomington, Indiana, 2002)</ref>