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== اقرأ أيضا ==
 
* [[البرمجة]]
* [[لينوكس]]
{{قاعدة بيانات}}
 
== مراجع ==
 
*<ref name=econotimes2060318>{{استشهاد بخبر |المسار=http://www.econotimes.com/SafeShare-Releases-First-Blockchain-Insurance-Solution-For-Sharing-Economy-181326 |العنوان= SafeShare Releases First Blockchain Insurance Solution For Sharing Economy |العمل=EconoTimes |التاريخ=2016-03-18 |تاريخ الوصول=2016-06-15 }}</ref><ref name=fortune20160515>{{استشهاد بخبر |الأخير=Morris|الأول=David Z. |المسار=http://fortune.com/2016/05/15/leaderless-blockchain-vc-fund/ |العنوان=Leaderless, Blockchain-Based Venture Capital Fund Raises $100 Million, And Counting |العمل=[[مجلة فورتشن]] |التاريخ=2016-05-15 |تاريخ الوصول=2016-05-23 }}</ref><ref name=nyt20160521>{{استشهاد بخبر |الأخير=Popper|الأول=Nathan |المسار=http://www.nytimes.com/2016/05/22/business/dealbook/crypto-ether-bitcoin-currency.html?_r=1 |العنوان=A Venture Fund With Plenty of Virtual Capital, but No Capitalist |العمل=[[نيويورك تايمز]] |التاريخ=2016-05-21 |تاريخ الوصول=2016-05-23 }}</ref><ref name=kopstein>{{Cite journal| المؤلف = Kopstein, Joshua | التاريخ= 2013-12-12 | العنوان = The Mission to Decentralize the Internet | المسار=http://www.newyorker.com/tech/elements/the-mission-to-decentralize-the-internet | تاريخ الوصول=30 December 2014 | journal = [[النيويوركر]] | اقتباس=The network's 'nodes'—users running the bitcoin software on their computers—collectively check the integrity of other nodes to ensure that no one spends the same coins twice. All transactions are published on a shared public ledger, called the 'block chain'}}</ref><ref name=IPblockchain>{{مرجع ويب|العنوان=Blockchain|المسار=http://www.investopedia.com/terms/b/blockchain.asp|الموقع=Investopedia|تاريخ الوصول=19 March 2016|اقتباس=Based on the Bitcoin protocol, the blockchain database is shared by all nodes participating in a system.}}</ref><ref name=te20151031>{{Cite journal| المؤلف = Economist Staff | التاريخ=2015-10-31 | العنوان=Blockchains: The great chain of being sure about things | journal = [[ذي إيكونوميست]] | المسار = http://www.economist.com/news/briefing/21677228-technology-behind-bitcoin-lets-people-who-do-not-know-or-trust-each-other-build-dependable | تاريخ الوصول=18 June 2016 | اقتباس = [Subtitle] The technology behind bitcoin lets people who do not know or trust each other build a dependable ledger. This has implications far beyond the crypto currency.}}</ref><ref name=obmh>{{مرجع ويب | المؤلف = Trottier, Leo | التاريخ = 2016-06-18 | العنوان=original-bitcoin | المسار=https://github.com/trottier/original-bitcoin/blob/master/src/main.h#L795-L803 | التنسيق = self-published code collection | الناشر = github | تاريخ الوصول= 2016-06-18 | اقتباس = This is a historical repository of Satoshi Nakamoto's original bit coin sourcecode }}</ref><ref name=reason20160506>{{استشهاد بخبر |الأخير=Epstein|الأول=Jim |المسار=http://reason.com/reasontv/2016/05/06/bitcoin-consensus-blockchain-wall-street |العنوان=Is Blockchain Technology a Trojan Horse Behind Wall Street's Walled Garden? |العمل=[[Reason (magazine)|Reason]] |التاريخ=2016-05-06 |تاريخ الوصول=2016-06-29 |اقتباس=''mainstream misgivings about working with a system that's open for anyone to use. Many banks are partnering with companies building so-called private blockchains that mimic some aspects of Bitcoin's architecture except they're designed to be closed off and accessible only to chosen parties. ... [but some believe] that open and permission-less blockchains will ultimately prevail even in the banking sector simply because they're more efficient.'' }}</ref><ref name=afr20160629>{{استشهاد بخبر |الأخير=Redrup|الأول=Yolanda |المسار=http://www.afr.com/technology/anz-backs-private-blockchain-but-wont-go-public-20160629-gpuf9z |العنوان=ANZ backs private blockchain, but won't go public |العمل=Australia Financial Review |التاريخ=2016-06-29 |تاريخ الوصول=2016-07-07 |اقتباس=''Blockchain networks can be either public or private. Public blockchains have many users and there are no controls over who can read, upload or delete the data and there are an unknown number of pseudonymous participants. In comparison, private blockchains also have multiple data sets, but there are controls in place over who can edit data and there are a known number of participants.''}}</ref><ref name=primer>{{مرجع ويب | المسار=http://mercatus.org/sites/default/files/Brito_BitcoinPrimer.pdf | العنوان=Bitcoin: A Primer for Policymakers | المكان = Fairfax, VA | الناشر=Mercatus Center, George Mason University | العمل= | السنة=2013 | تاريخ الوصول=22 October 2013 |authors = Brito, Jerry & Castillo, Andrea }}</ref><ref name=HBR201605>{{cite journal|الأخير1=Tapscott|الأول1=Don|العنوان=The Impact of the Blockchain Goes Beyond Financial Services|journal=Harvard Business Review|التاريخ=10 May 2016|المسار=https://hbr.org/2016/05/the-impact-of-the-blockchain-goes-beyond-financial-services|تاريخ الوصول=16 May 2016}}</ref><ref name=t9>{{مرجع ويب | المؤلف = DeRose, Chris | التاريخ= 2015-06-26 | العنوان=Why the Bitcoin Blockchain Beats Out Competitors | العمل=American Banker | المسار=http://www.americanbanker.com/bankthink/why-the-bitcoin-blockchain-beats-out-competitors-1075100-1.html | تاريخ الوصول=18 June 2016}}</ref><ref name=t10>{{مرجع ويب | المؤلف = Reutzel, Bailey | التاريخ = 2015-07-13 | العنوان=A Very Public Conflict Over Private Blockchains | العمل=PaymentsSource | المكان = New York, NY | الناشر = SourceMedia, Inc. | المسار=http://www.paymentssource.com/news/technology/a-very-public-confluct-over-private-blockchains-3021831-1.html | تاريخ الوصول=18 June 2016}}</ref><ref name=t11>{{Cite journal| المؤلف = Casey, Michael J. | التاريخ= 2015-04-15 | العنوان = Moneybeat/BitBeat: Blockchains Without Coins Stir Tensions in Bitcoin Community | journal = [[وول ستريت جورنال]] | المسار=http://blogs.wsj.com/moneybeat/2015/04/14/bitbeat-blockchains-without-coins-stir-tensions-in-bitcoin-community/ | تاريخ الوصول=18 June 2016}}</ref><ref name=t12>{{مرجع كتاب | المؤلف = Antonopoulos, Andreas M. | date = 2014 | العنوان=Mastering Bitcoin. Unlocking Digital Cryptocurrencies | المكان = Sebastopol, CA | الناشر = O'Reilly Media | isbn=1449374034 | المسار=http://chimera.labs.oreilly.com/books/1234000001802/ch01.html | access-date=3 November 2015}}</ref><ref name=t16>{{مرجع ويب| المؤلف = Voorhees, Erik | التاريخ = 2015-10-30 | العنوان = It's All About the Blockchain | المسار = http://moneyandstate.com/its-all-about-the-blockchain/ | الموقع = Money and State | تاريخ الوصول = 2015-11-02 }}</ref><ref name="paper">{{مرجع ويب |المسار=https://bitcoin.org/bitcoin.pdf |العنوان=Bitcoin: A Peer-to-Peer Electronic Cash System |التاريخ=October 2008 |الناشر=bitcoin.org |تاريخ الوصول=28 April 2014 |الأول=Satoshi |الأخير=Nakamoto}}</ref>
<ref name=econotimes2060318>{{استشهاد بخبر |المسار=http://www.econotimes.com/SafeShare-Releases-First-Blockchain-Insurance-Solution-For-Sharing-Economy-181326 |العنوان= SafeShare Releases First Blockchain Insurance Solution For Sharing Economy |العمل=EconoTimes |التاريخ=2016-03-18 |تاريخ الوصول=2016-06-15 }}</ref>
 
== كتب ==
<ref name=fortune20160515>{{استشهاد بخبر |الأخير=Morris|الأول=David Z. |المسار=http://fortune.com/2016/05/15/leaderless-blockchain-vc-fund/ |العنوان=Leaderless, Blockchain-Based Venture Capital Fund Raises $100 Million, And Counting |العمل=[[مجلة فورتشن]] |التاريخ=2016-05-15 |تاريخ الوصول=2016-05-23 }}</ref>
 
== روابط خارجية ==
<ref name=nyt20160521>{{استشهاد بخبر |الأخير=Popper|الأول=Nathan |المسار=http://www.nytimes.com/2016/05/22/business/dealbook/crypto-ether-bitcoin-currency.html?_r=1 |العنوان=A Venture Fund With Plenty of Virtual Capital, but No Capitalist |العمل=[[نيويورك تايمز]] |التاريخ=2016-05-21 |تاريخ الوصول=2016-05-23 }}</ref>
 
* [GitHub]
<ref name=kopstein>{{Cite journal| المؤلف = Kopstein, Joshua | التاريخ= 2013-12-12 | العنوان = The Mission to Decentralize the Internet | المسار=http://www.newyorker.com/tech/elements/the-mission-to-decentralize-the-internet | تاريخ الوصول=30 December 2014 | journal = [[النيويوركر]] | اقتباس=The network's 'nodes'—users running the bitcoin software on their computers—collectively check the integrity of other nodes to ensure that no one spends the same coins twice. All transactions are published on a shared public ledger, called the 'block chain'}}</ref>
 
<ref name=IPblockchain>{{مرجع ويب|العنوان=Blockchain|المسار=http://www.investopedia.com/terms/b/blockchain.asp|الموقع=Investopedia|تاريخ الوصول=19 March 2016|اقتباس=Based on the Bitcoin protocol, the blockchain database is shared by all nodes participating in a system.}}</ref>
 
<ref name=te20151031>{{Cite journal| المؤلف = Economist Staff | التاريخ=2015-10-31 | العنوان=Blockchains: The great chain of being sure about things | journal = [[ذي إيكونوميست]] | المسار = http://www.economist.com/news/briefing/21677228-technology-behind-bitcoin-lets-people-who-do-not-know-or-trust-each-other-build-dependable | تاريخ الوصول=18 June 2016 | اقتباس = [Subtitle] The technology behind bitcoin lets people who do not know or trust each other build a dependable ledger. This has implications far beyond the crypto currency.}}</ref>
 
<ref name=obmh>{{مرجع ويب | المؤلف = Trottier, Leo | التاريخ = 2016-06-18 | العنوان=original-bitcoin | المسار=https://github.com/trottier/original-bitcoin/blob/master/src/main.h#L795-L803 | التنسيق = self-published code collection | الناشر = github | تاريخ الوصول= 2016-06-18 | اقتباس = This is a historical repository of Satoshi Nakamoto's original bit coin sourcecode }}</ref>
 
<ref name=reason20160506>{{استشهاد بخبر |الأخير=Epstein|الأول=Jim |المسار=http://reason.com/reasontv/2016/05/06/bitcoin-consensus-blockchain-wall-street |العنوان=Is Blockchain Technology a Trojan Horse Behind Wall Street's Walled Garden? |العمل=[[Reason (magazine)|Reason]] |التاريخ=2016-05-06 |تاريخ الوصول=2016-06-29 |اقتباس=''mainstream misgivings about working with a system that's open for anyone to use. Many banks are partnering with companies building so-called private blockchains that mimic some aspects of Bitcoin's architecture except they're designed to be closed off and accessible only to chosen parties. ... [but some believe] that open and permission-less blockchains will ultimately prevail even in the banking sector simply because they're more efficient.'' }}</ref>
 
<ref name=afr20160629>{{استشهاد بخبر |الأخير=Redrup|الأول=Yolanda |المسار=http://www.afr.com/technology/anz-backs-private-blockchain-but-wont-go-public-20160629-gpuf9z |العنوان=ANZ backs private blockchain, but won't go public |العمل=Australia Financial Review |التاريخ=2016-06-29 |تاريخ الوصول=2016-07-07 |اقتباس=''Blockchain networks can be either public or private. Public blockchains have many users and there are no controls over who can read, upload or delete the data and there are an unknown number of pseudonymous participants. In comparison, private blockchains also have multiple data sets, but there are controls in place over who can edit data and there are a known number of participants.''}}</ref>
 
<ref name=primer>{{مرجع ويب | المسار=http://mercatus.org/sites/default/files/Brito_BitcoinPrimer.pdf | العنوان=Bitcoin: A Primer for Policymakers | المكان = Fairfax, VA | الناشر=Mercatus Center, George Mason University | العمل= | السنة=2013 | تاريخ الوصول=22 October 2013 |authors = Brito, Jerry & Castillo, Andrea }}</ref>
 
<ref name=HBR201605>{{cite journal|الأخير1=Tapscott|الأول1=Don|العنوان=The Impact of the Blockchain Goes Beyond Financial Services|journal=Harvard Business Review|التاريخ=10 May 2016|المسار=https://hbr.org/2016/05/the-impact-of-the-blockchain-goes-beyond-financial-services|تاريخ الوصول=16 May 2016}}</ref>
 
<ref name=t9>{{مرجع ويب | المؤلف = DeRose, Chris | التاريخ= 2015-06-26 | العنوان=Why the Bitcoin Blockchain Beats Out Competitors | العمل=American Banker | المسار=http://www.americanbanker.com/bankthink/why-the-bitcoin-blockchain-beats-out-competitors-1075100-1.html | تاريخ الوصول=18 June 2016}}</ref>
 
<ref name=t10>{{مرجع ويب | المؤلف = Reutzel, Bailey | التاريخ = 2015-07-13 | العنوان=A Very Public Conflict Over Private Blockchains | العمل=PaymentsSource | المكان = New York, NY | الناشر = SourceMedia, Inc. | المسار=http://www.paymentssource.com/news/technology/a-very-public-confluct-over-private-blockchains-3021831-1.html | تاريخ الوصول=18 June 2016}}</ref>
 
<ref name=t11>{{Cite journal| المؤلف = Casey, Michael J. | التاريخ= 2015-04-15 | العنوان = Moneybeat/BitBeat: Blockchains Without Coins Stir Tensions in Bitcoin Community | journal = [[وول ستريت جورنال]] | المسار=http://blogs.wsj.com/moneybeat/2015/04/14/bitbeat-blockchains-without-coins-stir-tensions-in-bitcoin-community/ | تاريخ الوصول=18 June 2016}}</ref>
 
<ref name=t12>{{مرجع كتاب | المؤلف = Antonopoulos, Andreas M. | date = 2014 | العنوان=Mastering Bitcoin. Unlocking Digital Cryptocurrencies | المكان = Sebastopol, CA | الناشر = O'Reilly Media | isbn=1449374034 | المسار=http://chimera.labs.oreilly.com/books/1234000001802/ch01.html | access-date=3 November 2015}}</ref>
 
<ref name=t16>{{مرجع ويب| المؤلف = Voorhees, Erik | التاريخ = 2015-10-30 | العنوان = It's All About the Blockchain | المسار = http://moneyandstate.com/its-all-about-the-blockchain/ | الموقع = Money and State | تاريخ الوصول = 2015-11-02 }}</ref>
 
<ref name="paper">{{مرجع ويب |المسار=https://bitcoin.org/bitcoin.pdf |العنوان=Bitcoin: A Peer-to-Peer Electronic Cash System |التاريخ=October 2008 |الناشر=bitcoin.org |تاريخ الوصول=28 April 2014 |الأول=Satoshi |الأخير=Nakamoto}}</ref>
 
== كتب ==
 
*
 
*
 
{{قاعدة بيانات}}
{{شريط بوابات|تعمية|معلوماتية|برمجة الحاسوب}}
[[تصنيف:أدوات الرياضيات]]
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