الغزو الفرنسي لروسيا: الفرق بين النسختين

تم إضافة 75 بايت ، ‏ قبل سنتين
ط
بوت:التعريب V3.2
ط (بوت:التعريب V3.2)
| partof = the [[الحروب النابليونية]]
| image = [[File:French invasion of Russia collage.jpg|300px]]
| caption = Clockwise from top left: The [[معركة بورودينو]] by [[Louis-François Lejeune|Louis Lejeune]]; The [[Fireحريق ofموسكو Moscowعام (1812)|Fire of Moscow]] by [[Albrecht Adam]]; [[Michel Ney|Marshalميشال Neyنيي]] at the battle of Kaunas by [[Auguste Raffet]]; French retreat by [[Illarion Pryanishnikov]]
| date = 24 June &nbsp;– 14 December 1812<br/>({{Age in months, weeks and days |month1=6 |day1=24 |year1=1812 |month2=12 |day2=14 |year2=1812 }})
| place = [[الإمبراطورية الروسية]]
* Start of the [[War of the Sixth Coalition]]
| combatant1 = {{plainlist|
*{{flagicon|France}} [[Firstالإمبراطورية Frenchالفرنسية Empire|French Empireالأولى]]
** {{flagicon image|Flag of Poland (1807–1815).svg}} [[Duchyدوقية of Warsawوارسو]]
** {{flagicon|Napoleonic Italy}} [[Napoleonicمملكة Italy|Kingdomإيطاليا of Italyالنابوليونية]]
** {{flagcountry|Kingdom of Naples|1811}}
** [[اتحاد الراين]]
*** {{flag|Baden|1806}}
*** {{flagicon|Bavaria|striped}} [[Kingdomمملكة of Bavaria|Bavariaبافاريا]]
*** {{flagicon image|Flag of the Grand Duchy of Berg (1806-1808).svg}} [[دوقية بيرغ الكبرى|Berg]]
*** {{flagicon image|State flag of Saxony before 1815.svg}} [[Kingdomمملكة of Saxony|Saxonyساكسونيا]]
*** {{flag|Westphalia}}
** {{flagicon|Switzerland}} [[Swiss Confederation (Napoleonic)|Swiss Confederation]]
**{{flagicon image|Bandera de España 1808-1813.svg}} [[Napoleonicمملكة Spainإسبانيا النابليونية]]
*{{flagcountry|Austrian Empire}}
*{{flag|Prussia|1803}}
| combatant2 = {{flag|Russian Empire}}
| commander1 = {{plainlist|
*{{flagicon|France}} '''[[Napoleonنابليون Iالأول]]'''
**{{flagicon|France}} [[Louis Alexandre Berthier]]
**{{flagicon|France}} [[Louis-Nicolas Davout]]
**{{flagicon|France}} [[Étienne-Jacques-Joseph-Alexandre MacDonald|Jacques MacDonald]]
**{{flagicon|France}} [[Nicolas Oudinot]]
*{{flagicon|Westphalia}} [[Jérômeجيروم Bonaparte|Jerome Iبونابرت]]
*{{flagicon image|Flag of Poland (1807–1815).svg}} [[يوزف أنتوني بونياتوفسكي]]
*{{flagicon|Kingdom of Naples|1811}} [[يواكيم مورات]]
*{{flagicon|Denmark}} [[Johann Ewald]]<ref name="du Faur">Christian Wilhelm von Faber du Faur, [https://books.google.com/books?id=3-YAAAAAMAAJ&pg=PA313 ''Campagne de Russie 1812: d'après le journal illustré d'un témoin oculaire''], éditions Flammarion, 1812, 319 pages, p.313.</ref><ref name="Labaume">Eugène Labaume, [https://books.google.com/books?id=zTgZ_NkTVScC&pg=PA453 ''Relation circonstanciée de la Campagne de Russie en 1812''], éditions Panckoucke-Magimel, 1815, p.453-454.</ref>}}
| commander2 = {{plainlist|
*{{flagicon|Russian Empire}} '''[[Alexanderألكسندر I of Russia|Alexander Iالأول]]'''
**{{flagicon|Russian Empire}} [[ميخائيل كوتوزوف]]
**{{flagicon|Russian Empire}} [[Michael Andreas Barclay de Tolly]]
| casualties1 = {{plainlist|
*'''Deaths:''' 400,000<ref>Zamoyski 2005, p. 536 — note this includes deaths of prisoners during captivity.</ref><ref name="The Wordsworth Pocket Encyclopedia p. 17">The Wordsworth Pocket Encyclopedia, p. 17, Hertfordshire 1993.</ref>
*'''Survivors:''' 120,000 men (excluding early [[deserterفرار]]s).
Of these,{{vague|reason=Does "these" refer to deaths or survivors?|date=August 2016}} 50,000 were Austrians and Prussians, 20,000 Poles and 35,000 Frenchmen.<ref>Zamoyski, page 536</ref>}}
| casualties2 = '''Deaths:''' 210,000<ref name=Bogdanovich>Bogdanovich, "History of Patriotic War 1812", Spt., 1859–1860, Appendix, pp. 492–503.</ref>