افتح القائمة الرئيسية

تغييرات

تم إضافة 8٬764 بايت ، ‏ قبل سنتين
 
=== الخط الفينيقي الحديث ===
{| class="wikitable" id="letters_chart"
|-
! colspan="2" | حرف
! rowspan="2" | اسم<ref>after {{cite book|first=Steven R.|last=Fischer|year=2001|title=A History of Writing|publisher=Reaction Books|location=London|page=126}}</ref>
! rowspan="2" | معنى
! rowspan="2" | [[صوت]]
! rowspan="2" | أصل
! colspan="9" | الحرف المقابل في [[أبجدية|الأبجدية]] أو [[ألفبائية|الألفبائية]]
|-
! صورة
! نص
! [[كتابة عبرية|العبرية]]
! [[أبجدية سريانية|السريانية]]
! [[أبجدية عربية|العربية]]
! [[خط المسند|العربية الجنوبية القديمة]]
! [[حروف جعزية|الجعزية]]
! [[ألفبائية يونانية|اليونانية]]
! [[أبجدية لاتينية|اللاتينية]]
! [[ألفبائية كيريلية|الكيريلية]]
|-
| {{Anchor|aleph}}[[File:Phoenician aleph.svg|20px|Aleph]]
| {{huge|{{lang|phn|{{script|Phnx|&#x10900;}}}}}}
| [[Aleph|آلپ]]
| ثور (وكذلك فواصل أدوات القياس)
| ʾ {{IPAblink|ʔ}}
| 𓃾
| [[Aleph|א]]
| [[Aleph|ܐ]]
| [[Aleph|ا]]
| [[Aleph|𐩱]]
| [[Aleph|አ]]
| [[Α]]α
| [[A]]a
| [[А]]а
|-
| {{Anchor|Beth|Bet}}[[File:Phoenician beth.svg|20px|Beth]]
| {{huge|{{lang|phn|{{script|Phnx|&#x10901;}}}}}}
| [[Bet (letter)|بات]]
| بيت
| b {{IPAblink|b}}
| 𓉐
| [[Bet (letter)|ב]]
| [[Bet (letter)|ܒ]]
| [[Bet (letter)|ب]]
| [[Bet (letter)|𐩨]]
| [[Bet (letter)|በ]]
| [[Beta (letter)|Ββ]]
| [[B]]b
| [[Б]]б, [[В]]в
|-
| {{Anchor|Gimel}}[[File:Phoenician gimel.svg|20px|Gimel]]
| {{huge|{{lang|phn|{{script|Phnx|&#x10902;}}}}}}
| [[gimel|چيمل]]
| رمح/جمل
| g {{IPAblink|ɡ}}
|
| [[Gimel|ג]]
| [[Gimel|ܓ]]
| [[Gimel|ج]]
| [[Gimel|𐩴]]
| [[Gimel|ገ]]
| [[Γ]]γ
| [[C]]c, [[G]]g
| [[Г]]г, [[Ґ]]ґ
|-
| {{Anchor|Daleth|Dalet}}[[File:Phoenician daleth.svg|20px|Daleth]]
| {{huge|{{lang|phn|{{script|Phnx|&#x10903;}}}}}}
| [[Dalet|دالت]]
| باب
| d {{IPAblink|d}}
| 𓇯
| [[Dalet|ד]]
| [[Dalet|ܕ]]
| [[Dalet|د]], [[Ḏāl|ذ]]
| [[Dalet|𐩵]]
| [[Dalet|ደ]]
| [[Δ]]δ
| [[D]]d
| [[Д]]д
|-
| {{Anchor|He}}[[File:Phoenician he.svg|20px|He]]
| {{huge|{{lang|phn|{{script|Phnx|&#x10904;}}}}}}
| [[He (letter)|هآ]]
| نافذة
| h {{IPAblink|h}}
| 𓀠
| [[He (letter)|ה]]
| [[He (letter)|ܗ]]
| [[He (letter)|ه]]
| [[He (letter)|𐩠]]
| [[He (letter)|ሀ]]
| [[Ε]]ε
| [[E]]e
| [[Е]]е, [[Є]]є, [[Э]]э
|-
| {{Anchor|Waw}}[[File:Phoenician waw.svg|20px|Waw]]
| {{huge|{{lang|phn|{{script|Phnx|&#x10905;}}}}}}
| [[Waw (letter)|واو]]
| خطاف
| w {{IPAblink|w}}
|
| [[Waw (letter)|ו]]
| [[Waw (letter)|ܘ]]
| [[Waw (letter)|و]]
| [[Waw (letter)|𐩥]]
| [[Waw (letter)|ወ]]
| ({{lang|grc|[[Ϝ]]ϝ}}), [[Υ]]υ
| [[F]]f, [[U]]u, [[V]]v, [[Y]]y, [[W]]w
| ([[Ѵ]]ѵ), [[У]]у, [[Ў]]ў
|-
| {{Anchor|Zayin}}[[File:Phoenician zayin.svg|20px|Zayin]]
| {{huge|{{lang|phn|{{script|Phnx|&#x10906;}}}}}}
| [[zayin|زاين]]
| سلاح
| z {{IPAblink|z}}
|
| [[Zayin|ז]]
| [[Zayin|ܙ]]
| [[Zayin|ز]]
| [[Zayin|𐩹]]
| [[Zayin|ዘ]]
| [[Ζ]]ζ
| [[Z]]z
| [[З]]з
|-
| {{Anchor|Heth}}[[File:Phoenician heth.svg|20px|Heth]]
| {{huge|{{lang|phn|{{script|Phnx|&#x10907;}}}}}}
| [[Heth|حاث]]
| جدار، فناء
| ḥ {{IPAblink|ħ}}
| 𓉗
| [[Heth|ח]]
| [[Heth|ܚ]]
| [[Heth|ح]], [[Ḫāʾ|خ]]
| [[Heth|𐩢]], [[Ḫāʾ|𐩭]]
| [[Heth|ሐ]], [[Ḫarm|ኀ]]
| [[Η]]η
| [[H]]h
| [[И]]и, [[Й]]й
|-
| {{Anchor|Teth}}[[File:Phoenician teth.svg|20px|Teth]]
| {{huge|{{lang|phn|{{script|Phnx|&#x10908;}}}}}}
| [[Teth|طيت]]
| عجلة/جيد
| ṭ {{IPAblink|tˤ}}
| 𓄤
| [[Teth|ט]]
| [[Teth|ܛ]]
| [[Teth|ط]], [[Ẓāʾ|ظ]]
| [[Teth|𐩷]]
| [[Teth|ጠ]]
| [[Θ]]θ
| —
| ([[Ѳ]]ѳ)
|-
| {{Anchor|Yodh}}[[File:Phoenician yodh.svg|20px|Yodh]]
| {{huge|{{lang|phn|{{script|Phnx|&#x10909;}}}}}}
| [[Yodh|يود]]
| يد
| y {{IPAblink|j}}
| 𓂝
| [[Yodh|י]]
| [[Yodh|ܝ]]
| [[Yodh|ي]]
| [[Yodh|𐩺]]
| [[Yodh|የ]]
| [[Ι]]ι
| [[I]]i, [[J]]j
| [[І]]і, [[Ї]]ї, [[Ј]]ј
|-
| {{Anchor|Kaph}}[[File:Phoenician kaph.svg|20px|Kaph]]
| {{huge|{{lang|phn|{{script|Phnx|&#x1090A;}}}}}}
| [[kaph|كاپ]]
| راحة (اليد)
| k {{IPAblink|k}}
| 𓂧
| [[Kaph|כך]]
| [[Kaph|ܟ]]
| [[Kaph|ك]]
| [[Kaph|𐩫]]
| [[Kaph|ከ]]
| [[Κ]]κ
| [[K]]k
| [[К]]к
|-
| {{Anchor|Lamedh}}[[File:Phoenician lamedh.svg|20px|Lamedh]]
| {{huge|{{lang|phn|{{script|Phnx|&#x1090B;}}}}}}
| [[Lamedh|لامد]]
| [[مهماز]]
| l {{IPAblink|l}}
| 𓌅
| [[Lamedh|ל]]
| [[Lamedh|ܠ]]
| [[Lamedh|ل]]
| [[Lamedh|𐩡]]
| [[Lamedh|ለ]]
| [[Λ]]λ
| [[L]]l
| [[Л]]л
|-
| {{Anchor|Mem}}[[File:Phoenician mem.svg|20px|Mem]]
| {{huge|{{lang|phn|{{script|Phnx|&#x1090C;}}}}}}
| [[mem|mēm]]
| ماء
| m {{IPAblink|m}}
| 𓈖
| [[Mem|מם]]
| [[Mem|ܡ]]
| [[Mem|م]]
| [[Mem|𐩣]]
| [[Mem|መ]]
| [[Μ]]μ
| [[M]]m
| [[М]]м
|-
| {{Anchor|Nun}}[[File:Phoenician nun.svg|20px|Nun]]
| {{huge|{{lang|phn|{{script|Phnx|&#x1090D;}}}}}}
| [[Nun (letter)|nūn]]
| ثعبان
| n {{IPAblink|n}}
| 𓆓
| [[Nun (letter)|נן]]
| [[Nun (letter)|ܢ]]
| [[Nun (letter)|ن]]
| [[Nun (letter)|𐩬]]
| [[Nun (letter)|ነ]]
| [[Ν]]ν
| [[N]]n
| [[Н]]н
|-
| {{Anchor|Samekh}}[[File:Phoenician samekh.svg|20px|Samekh]]
| {{huge|{{lang|phn|{{script|Phnx|&#x1090E;}}}}}}
| [[Samekh|sāmek]]
| سمكة، [[عمود جد|جد]]
| s {{IPAblink|s}}
| 𓊽
| [[Samekh|ס]]
| [[Samekh|ܣ]], [[Samekh|ܤ]]
| —
| [[Sat (letter)|𐩪]]
| [[Sat (letter)|ሰ]]
| [[Ξ]]ξ, poss. [[Χ]]χ
| poss. [[X]]x
| ([[Ѯ]]ѯ), poss. [[Х]]х
|-
| {{Anchor|Ayin}}[[File:Phoenician ayin.svg|20px|Ayin]]
| {{huge|{{lang|phn|{{script|Phnx|&#x1090F;}}}}}}
| [[Ayin|عيّن]]
| عين
| ʿ {{IPAblink|ʕ}}
| 𓁹
| [[Ayin|ע]]
| [[Ayin|ܥ]]
| [[Ayin|ع]], [[Ghain|غ]]
| [[Ayin|𐩲]]
| [[Ayin|ዐ]]
| [[Ο]]ο, [[Ω]]ω
| [[O]]o
| [[О]]о
|-
| {{Anchor|Pe}}[[File:Phoenician pe.svg|20px|Pe]]
| {{huge|{{lang|phn|{{script|Phnx|&#x10910;}}}}}}
| [[Pe (letter)|پا]]
| فم
| p {{IPAblink|p}}
| 𓂋
| [[Pe (letter)|פף]]
| [[Pe (letter)|ܦ]]
| [[Pe (letter)|ف]]
| [[Pe (letter)|𐩰]]
| [[Pe (letter)|ፈ]]
| [[Pi (letter)|Π]]π
| [[P]]p
| [[П]]п
|-
| {{Anchor|Sadek|Tsade}}[[File:Phoenician sade.svg|20px|Sadek]]
| {{huge|{{lang|phn|{{script|Phnx|&#x10911;}}}}}}
| [[Tsade|صاد]]
| صيد/[[بردية]]
| ṣ {{IPAblink|sˤ}}
|
| [[Tsade|צץ]]
| [[Tsade|ܨ]]
| [[Tsade|ص]], [[Ḍād|ض]]
| [[Tsade|𐩮]]
| [[Tsade|ጸ]], ጰ, ፀ
| ({{lang|grc|[[Ϻ]]ϻ}})
| —
| [[Ц]]ц, [[Ч]]ч, [[Џ]]џ
|-
| {{Anchor|Qoph}}[[File:Phoenician qoph.svg|20px|Qoph]]
| {{huge|{{lang|phn|{{script|Phnx|&#x10912;}}}}}}
| [[Qoph|قوپ]]
| ثقب ابرة
| q {{IPAblink|q}}
| 𓃻
| [[Qoph|ק]]
| [[Qoph|ܩ]]
| [[Qoph|ق]]
| [[Qoph|𐩤]]
| [[Qoph|ቀ]]
| ({{lang|grc|[[Ϙ]]ϙ}}), poss. [[Φ]]φ, [[Ψ]]ψ
| [[Q]]q
| ([[Ҁ]]ҁ)
|-
| {{Anchor|Res|Resh}}[[File:Phoenician res.svg|20px|Res]]
| {{huge|{{lang|phn|{{script|Phnx|&#x10913;}}}}}}
| [[Resh|راش]]
| رأس
| r {{IPAblink|r}}
| 𓁶
| [[Resh|ר]]
| [[Resh|ܪ]]
| [[Resh|ر]]
| [[Resh|𐩧]]
| [[Resh|ረ]]
| [[Ρ]]ρ
| [[R]]r
| [[Р]]р
|-
| {{Anchor|Sin|Shin}}[[File:Phoenician sin.svg|20px|Sin]]
| {{huge|{{lang|phn|{{script|Phnx|&#x10914;}}}}}}
| [[Shin (letter)|شين]]
| سن
| š {{IPAblink|ʃ}}
| 𓌓
| [[Shin (letter)|ש]]
| [[Shin (letter)|ܫ]]
| [[Shin (letter)|ش]], [[Shin (letter)|س]]
| [[Shin (letter)|𐩦]]
| [[Śawt|ሠ]]
| [[Sigma|Σ]]σς
| [[S]]s
| [[С]]с, [[Ш]]ш, [[Щ]]щ
|-
| {{Anchor|Taw}}[[File:Phoenician taw.svg|20px|Taw]]
| {{huge|{{lang|phn|{{script|Phnx|&#x10915;}}}}}}
| [[Taw|طاو]]
| طابع، علامة
| t {{IPAblink|t}}
|
| [[Taw|ת]]
| [[Taw|ܬ]]
| [[Taw|ت]], [[Ṯāʾ|ث]]
| [[Taw|𐩩]]
| [[Taw|ተ]], ፐ (?)
| [[Τ]]τ
| [[T]]t
| [[Т]]т
|-
|}
 
{| class="wikitable" style="text-align: center" id="ipa_table"
|-
! colspan="2" rowspan="2" |
! rowspan="2" | Labial
! colspan="2" | Alveolar
! rowspan="2" | Palatal
! rowspan="2" | Velar
! rowspan="2" | Uvular
! rowspan="2" | Pharyngeal
! rowspan="2" | Glottal
|-
! <small>Plain</small>
! <small>Emphatic</small>
|-
! colspan="2" | Nasal
| {{IPA|m}} || {{IPA|n}} || || || || || ||
|-
! rowspan="2" | Stop
! <small>Voiceless</small>
| {{IPA|p}} || {{IPA|t}} || {{IPA|tˤ}} || || {{IPA|k}} || {{IPA|q}} || || {{IPA|ʔ}}
|-
! <small>Voiced</small>
| {{IPA|b}} || {{IPA|d}} || || || {{IPA|ɡ}} || || ||
|-
! rowspan="2" | Fricative
! <small>Voiceless</small>
| || {{IPA|s}} || {{IPA|sˤ}} || {{IPA|ʃ}} || || || {{IPA|ħ}} || {{IPA|h}}
|-
! <small>Voiced</small>
| || {{IPA|z}} || || || || || {{IPA|ʕ}} ||
|-
! colspan="2" | Trill
| || {{IPA|r}} || || || || || ||
|-
! colspan="2" | Approximant
| || {{IPA|l}} || || {{IPA|j}} || {{IPA|w}} || || ||
|}
 
 
[[ملف:Mus Carthage.JPG|تصغير|250 عن|لوحة تحوي كتابة بونيقية ([[المتحف الوطني بقرطاج]]، [[قرطاج]]، [[تونس]])]]
النصوص المكتوبة بـ'''الخط الفينيقي الحديث''' أو '''الخط البونيقي''' قليلة جدًا ({{قرن ق.م.|5}} - {{قرن م|1}})، وأكثرها على العملات النقدية، وجاءت فيها أشكال الحروف متشوهة.
3٬064

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