افتح القائمة الرئيسية

تغييرات

لا تغيير في الحجم، ‏ قبل سنة واحدة
ط
بوت:تدقيق إملائي (تجريبي)
 
== وراثيا ==
المدى الذي ساهم بتدفق الجينات من آسيا الوسطى إلى مجموعة الجينات الحالية للشعب التركي، ودور غزو الشعوب التركية فىفي القرن ال11، أصبح محل للدراسات المختلفة. استنتجت العديد من الدراسات أن الجماعات الأناضولية التاريخية والأصلية هي المصدر الرئيسي للسكان الأتراك في الوقت الحاضر.<ref name=Yardumian_et_al>{{Cite journal|last=Yardumian |first=Aram |last2=Schurr |first2=Theodore G. |year=2011 |title=Who Are the Anatolian Turks? |url=http://www.pop.upenn.edu/biblio/who-are-anatolian-turks-reappraisal-anthropological-genetic-evidence |journal=Anthropology & Archeology of Eurasia |volume=50 |pages=6–42 |doi=10.2753/AAE1061-1959500101|accessdate=21 October 2013|quote="These data further solidify our case for a paternal G/J substratum in Anatolian populations, and for continuity between the Paleolithic/Neolithic and the current populations of Anatolia."}}</ref>{{محتوى مرجعي|k}}<ref name=eurostudy>{{Cite journal| pmid = 11078479 | doi = 10.1086/316890 | last1 = Rosser | first1 = Z. | last2 = Zerjal | first2 = T. | last3 = Hurles | first3 = M. | last4 = Adojaan | first4 = M. | last5 = Alavantic | first5 = D. | last6 = Amorim | first6 = A. | last7 = Amos | first7 = W. | last8 = Armenteros | first8 = M. | last9 = Arroyo | first9 = E. | last10 = Barbujani | first10 = G. | last11 = Beckman | first11 = G. | last12 = Beckman | first12 = L. | last13 = Bertranpetit | first13 = J. | last14 = Bosch | first14 = E. | last15 = Bradley | first15 = D. 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W. | last27 = Jeziorowska | first27 = A. | last28 = Kalaydjieva | first28 = L. | last29 = Kayser | first29 = M. | last30 = Kivisild | first30 = T. | title = Y-Chromosomal Diversity in Europe is Clinal and Influenced Primarily by Geography, Rather than by Language | journal = The American Journal of Human Genetics | volume = 67 | issue = 6 | pages = 1526–1543 | year = 2000 | pmc =1287948}}[http://evolutsioon.ut.ee/publications/Rosser2000.pdf]</ref><ref name=stanford>{{Cite journal| last1 = Cinnioglu | first1 = C. | last2 = King | first2 = R. | last3 = Kivisild | first3 = T. | last4 = Kalfoğlu | first4 = E. | last5 = Atasoy | first5 = S. | last6 = Cavalleri | first6 = G. L. | last7 = Lillie | first7 = A. S. | last8 = Roseman | first8 = C. C. | last9 = Lin | first9 = A. A. | doi = 10.1007/s00439-003-1031-4 | last10 = Prince | first10 = K. | last11 = Oefner | first11 = P. J. | last12 = Shen | first12 = P. | last13 = Semino | first13 = O. | last14 = Cavalli-Sforza | first14 = L. L. | last15 = Underhill | first15 = P. A. | title = Excavating Y-chromosome haplotype strata in Anatolia | journal = Human Genetics | volume = 114 | issue = 2 | pages = 127–148 | year = 2004 | pmid = 14586639| pmc =}}[http://evolutsioon.ut.ee/publications/Cinnioglu2004.pdf]</ref><ref name=antigens57>{{Cite journal| last1 = Arnaiz-Villena | first1 = A. | last2 = Karin | first2 = M. | last3 = Bendikuze | first3 = N. | last4 = Gomez-Casado | first4 = E. | last5 = Moscoso | first5 = J. | last6 = Silvera | first6 = C. | last7 = Oguz | first7 = F. S. | last8 = Sarper Diler | first8 = A. | last9 = De Pacho | first9 = A. | last10 = Allende | doi = 10.1034/j.1399-0039.2001.057004308.x | first10 = L. | last11 = Guillen | first11 = J. | last12 = Martinez Laso | first12 = J. | title = HLA alleles and haplotypes in the Turkish population: Relatedness to Kurds, Armenians and other Mediterraneans | journal = Tissue Antigens | volume = 57 | issue = 4 | pages = 308–317 | year = 2001 | pmid = 11380939| pmc =}}</ref><ref name=euroasia>{{Cite journal| last1 = Wells | first1 = R. S. | last2 = Yuldasheva | first2 = N. | last3 = Ruzibakiev | first3 = R. | last4 = Underhill | first4 = P. A. | last5 = Evseeva | first5 = I. | last6 = Blue-Smith | first6 = J. | last7 = Jin | first7 = L. | last8 = Su | first8 = B. | last9 = Pitchappan | first9 = R. | doi = 10.1073/pnas.171305098 | last10 = Shanmugalakshmi | first10 = S. | last11 = Balakrishnan | first11 = K. | last12 = Read | first12 = M. | last13 = Pearson | first13 = N. M. | last14 = Zerjal | first14 = T. | last15 = Webster | first15 = M. T. | last16 = Zholoshvili | first16 = I. | last17 = Jamarjashvili | first17 = E. | last18 = Gambarov | first18 = S. | last19 = Nikbin | first19 = B. | last20 = Dostiev | first20 = A. | last21 = Aknazarov | first21 = O. | last22 = Zalloua | first22 = P. | last23 = Tsoy | first23 = I. | last24 = Kitaev | first24 = M. | last25 = Mirrakhimov | first25 = M. | last26 = Chariev | first26 = A. | last27 = Bodmer | first27 = W. F. | title = The Eurasian Heartland: A continental perspective on Y-chromosome diversity | journal = Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences | volume = 98 | issue = 18 | pages = 10244–10249| year = 2001 | pmid = 11526236| pmc = 56946}}</ref> وفضلاً عن ذلك، أشارت الدراسات المختلفة، على الرغم من أن الغزاة التركمان نفذوا غزوا بمغزى [[ثقافة|ثقافي]]، بما في ذلك من إدخال اللغة التركية الاناضولية القديمة (التى هى سلفاً للتركية الحديثة) وال[[إسلام]] للأناضول، إلا أن المساهمة الوراثية من آسيا الوسطى كانت صغيرة جدا.{{محتوى مرجعي|k}}<ref name=eurostudy/><ref name=med_pops>{{Cite journal| last1 = Arnaiz-Villena | first1 = A. | last2 = Gomez-Casado | first2 = E. | last3 = Martinez-Laso | first3 = J. | doi = 10.1034/j.1399-0039.2002.600201.x | title = Population genetic relationships between Mediterranean populations determined by HLA allele distribution and a historic perspective | journal = Tissue Antigens | volume = 60 | issue = 2 | pages = 111–121 | year = 2002 | pmid = 12392505| pmc =}}</ref> وفقا ''للجريدة الأمريكية لعلم الإنسان الطبيعي'' (2008)، الشعب التركي اليوم يرتبط بشكل وثيق مع سكان [[البلقان]] عن سكان [[آسيا الوسطى]]<ref name=METU>{{Cite journal
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