الغزو الفرنسي لروسيا: الفرق بين النسختين

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{{Infobox military conflict
| conflict = French Invasion of Russia
| partof = the [[Napoleonic Wars]]
| image = [[File:French invasion of Russia collage.jpg|300px]]
| caption = Clockwise from top left: The [[Battle of Borodino]] by [[Louis-François Lejeune|Louis Lejeune]]; The [[Fire of Moscow (1812)|Fire of Moscow]] by [[Albrecht Adam]]; [[Michel Ney|Marshal Ney]] at the battle of Kaunas by [[Auguste Raffet]]; French retreat by [[Illarion Pryanishnikov]]
| date = 24 June &nbsp;– 14 December 1812<br/>({{Age in months, weeks and days |month1=6 |day1=24 |year1=1812 |month2=12 |day2=14 |year2=1812 }})
| place = [[Russian Empire]]
| result =
Decisive Russian victory<ref name=klaus/>
* Destruction of French Allied Army
* Start of the [[War of the Sixth Coalition]]
| combatant1 = {{plainlist|
*{{flagicon|France}} [[First French Empire|French Empire]]
** {{flagicon image|Flag of Poland (1807–1815).svg}} [[Duchy of Warsaw]]
** {{flagicon|Napoleonic Italy}} [[Napoleonic Italy|Kingdom of Italy]]
** {{flagcountry|Kingdom of Naples|1811}}
** [[Confederation of the Rhine]]
*** {{flag|Baden|1806}}
*** {{flagicon|Bavaria|striped}} [[Kingdom of Bavaria|Bavaria]]
*** {{flagicon image|Flag of the Grand Duchy of Berg (1806-1808).svg}} [[Grand Duchy of Berg|Berg]]
*** {{flagicon image|State flag of Saxony before 1815.svg}} [[Kingdom of Saxony|Saxony]]
*** {{flag|Westphalia}}
** {{flagicon|Switzerland}} [[Swiss Confederation (Napoleonic)|Swiss Confederation]]
**{{flagicon image|Bandera de España 1808-1813.svg}} [[Napoleonic Spain]]
*{{flagcountry|Austrian Empire}}
*{{flag|Prussia|1803}}
*{{flagicon|Denmark}} [[Denmark–Norway]]}}
| combatant2 = {{flag|Russian Empire}}
| commander1 = {{plainlist|
*{{flagicon|France}} '''[[Napoleon I]]'''
**{{flagicon|France}} [[Louis Alexandre Berthier]]
**{{flagicon|France}} [[Louis-Nicolas Davout]]
**{{flagicon|France}} [[Michel Ney]]
**{{flagicon|France}} [[Étienne-Jacques-Joseph-Alexandre MacDonald|Jacques MacDonald]]
**{{flagicon|France}} [[Nicolas Oudinot]]
*{{flagicon|Westphalia}} [[Jérôme Bonaparte|Jerome I]]
*{{flagicon image|Flag of Poland (1807–1815).svg}} [[Józef Poniatowski]]
*{{flagicon|Kingdom of Naples|1811}} [[Joachim Murat]]
*{{flagicon|Napoleonic Italy}} [[Eugène de Beauharnais]]
*{{flagicon|Austrian Empire}} [[Karl Philipp, Prince of Schwarzenberg|Karl Philipp]]
*{{flagicon|Prussia|1803}} [[Ludwig Yorck von Wartenburg|Johann Yorck]]
*{{flagicon|Prussia|1803}} [[Julius von Grawert]]
*{{flagicon|Denmark}} [[Johann Ewald]]<ref name="du Faur">Christian Wilhelm von Faber du Faur, [https://books.google.com/books?id=3-YAAAAAMAAJ&pg=PA313 ''Campagne de Russie 1812: d'après le journal illustré d'un témoin oculaire''], éditions Flammarion, 1812, 319 pages, p.313.</ref><ref name="Labaume">Eugène Labaume, [https://books.google.com/books?id=zTgZ_NkTVScC&pg=PA453 ''Relation circonstanciée de la Campagne de Russie en 1812''], éditions Panckoucke-Magimel, 1815, p.453-454.</ref>}}
| commander2 = {{plainlist|
*{{flagicon|Russian Empire}} '''[[Alexander I of Russia|Alexander I]]'''
**{{flagicon|Russian Empire}} [[Mikhail Kutuzov]]
**{{flagicon|Russian Empire}} [[Michael Andreas Barclay de Tolly]]
**{{flagicon|Russian Empire}} [[Pyotr Bagration]]{{KIA}}
**{{flagicon|Russian Empire}} [[Peter Wittgenstein]]
**{{flagicon|Russian Empire}} [[Alexander Tormasov]]
**{{flagicon|Russian Empire}} [[Pavel Chichagov]]}}
| strength1 = '''{{lang|fr|[[Grande Armée]]}}:''' c. 685,000{{sfn|Riehn|1991|p=50}}
| strength2 = {{plainlist|
*'''[[Imperial Russian Army]]:'''
**regulars: 198,250 June 20th{{sfn|Riehn|1991|p=50}}
**Around 900,000 men (soldiers and militia) at peak{{sfn|Riehn|1991|p=50}}}}
| casualties1 = {{plainlist|
*'''Deaths:''' 400,000<ref>Zamoyski 2005, p. 536 — note this includes deaths of prisoners during captivity.</ref><ref name="The Wordsworth Pocket Encyclopedia p. 17">The Wordsworth Pocket Encyclopedia, p. 17, Hertfordshire 1993.</ref>
*'''Survivors:''' 120,000 men (excluding early [[deserter]]s).
Of these,{{vague|reason=Does "these" refer to deaths or survivors?|date=August 2016}} 50,000 were Austrians and Prussians, 20,000 Poles and 35,000 Frenchmen.<ref>Zamoyski, page 536</ref>}}
| casualties2 = '''Deaths:''' 210,000<ref name=Bogdanovich>Bogdanovich, "History of Patriotic War 1812", Spt., 1859–1860, Appendix, pp. 492–503.</ref>
| campaignbox =
{{Campaignbox Napoleonic Wars}}
{{Campaignbox Napoleon's invasion of Russia}}
{{Polish-Russian Wars}}
}}
'''الغزو الفرنسي لروسيا''' الذي كان في العام [[1812]] كان نقطة تحول في [[الحروب النابليونية]]. هذه الحرب تعرف في روسيا بالحرب الوطنية ([[لغة روسية|بالروسية]]:Отечественная война) والتي تختلف عن [[الجبهة الشرقية (الحرب العالمية الثانية)|الحرب الوطنية العظمى]] التي تشير إلى الغزو الألماني لروسيا في [[الحرب العالمية الثانية]]. تعرف الحرب الوطنية أيضا باسم "حرب 1812" وهو نفس اسم [[حرب 1812|الحرب]] التي دارت بين [[الولايات المتحدة]] و[[المملكة المتحدة]].