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'''زولا''' {{lang-ti|ዙላ}}) هي بلدة صغيرة في وسط [[إريتريا]]. تقع بالقرب من رأس [[خليج زولا]] (المعروف أيضا باسم خليج أنيسلي)، على ساحل [[البحر الأحمر]]. وعلى بعد أربعة كيلومترات من موقع أدوليس الأثري، الذي كان أحد [[ميناء|موانئ]] [[أكسوم]].
 
==Historyالتاريخ==
A Semitic people from Saudi-Arabia invaded these parts in about 1000 BC. By 400 AD they had established the [[مملكة أكسوم]] and an important [[trade route]] led from Adulis, then on the coast, to the capital of the kingdom, [[أكسوم]], located in what is now the [[تيغراي (إقليم)]] of Ethiopia.<ref name=Publications>{{cite book|author1=|title=Eritrea Foreign Policy And Government Guide |url=https://books.google.com/books?id=sDVSMs-G5C4C&pg=PA27 |year=2004 |publisher=International Business Publications |isbn=978-0-7397-9641-2 |page=27 }}</ref>
 
In 1857, an agreement was entered into by [[Dejazmach]] of [[Tigray Province|Tigray]], in revolt against [[Emperor of Ethiopia|Emperor]] [[تيودروس الثاني]], to cede Zula to the [[فرنسا]]. Agew Niguse was defeated by Emperor Tewodros, and the commander of a French cruiser sent to Annesley Bay in 1859 found the country in a state of anarchy. No further steps were taken by France to assert its sovereignty, and Zula with the neighbouring coast passed, nominally, to [[مصر]] in 1866. Zula was the place where the [[1868 Expedition to Abyssinia|British expedition of 1867 – 1868]] against Tewodros disembarked, Annesley Bay affording safe and ample anchorage for the largest ocean-going vessels. A road was built by the [[المملكة المتحدة]] from Zula to [[Senafe]] in the [[مرتفعات إثيوبيا]].<ref name="EB1911">{{1911|inline=1|wstitle=Zula |volume=28|page=1049}}</ref>
 
The authority of Egypt having lapsed over Zula, an [[إيطاليا]] [[حماية (قانون دولي)]] was proclaimed in 1888, and in 1890 the town was incorporated into the colony of [[إريتريا]].<ref name="EB1911"/>
 
==Geography==
Zula is a village and port on the Red Sea in central Eritrea. It stands on the right bank of the River Aligede, on a narrow coastal plain on the west side of a natural inlet, the [[خليج زولا]], some {{حول|80|km|mi|0|abbr=on}} to the east of [[أسمرة]].<ref name=Atlas>{{cite book |title=Atlas of the World |last=Philip's |year=1994 |publisher=Reed International |isbn=0-540-05831-9 |page=108 }}</ref> The coast here is lined with mangroves, and there is an aircraft landing strip {{حول|5|km|mi|0|abbr=on}} to the north.<ref name=Naval>{{cite book|author=Naval,|title=Western Arabia & The Red Sea|url=https://books.google.com/books?id=-ffWAQAAQBAJ&pg=PA78-IA16 |year=2013 |publisher=Routledge |isbn=978-1-136-21002-0 |page=78}}</ref>
 
The original port of Adulis is now {{حول|4|km|mi|1|abbr=on}} inland, debris washed down from the mountains having accumulated along the coastline, extending it further out to sea. At Zula, the remains of the railway tracks, laid by Napier's Expedition to haul his heavy equipment ashore, can still be seen.<ref name=Denison>{{cite book|author1=Edward Denison|author2=Edward Paice|title=Eritrea: The Bradt Travel Guide |url=https://books.google.com/books?id=Qi-KQchGks8C&pg=PA176 |year=2007|publisher=Bradt Travel Guides |isbn=978-1-84162-171-5 |page=176}}</ref>
 
==مراجع==