مدرسة المعداد: الفرق بين النسختين

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{{مقالة غير مراجعة|تاريخ=مايو 2013}}
'''المعداد''' (Abacus) لفظ يشير إلى عمليات الحساب، خاصة مادة الحسابات المباشرة باستخدام الأعداد [[الهندية]] دون الاستعانة بـ [[المعداد]] (وهو أداة للحساب).<ref>[[Leonardo Fibonacci]]. “Fibonacci’s [[Liber Abaci]]: Leonardo Pisano’s Book of Calculation”. Contributor Laurence Edward Sigler. [1202]. Springer. 2003. Page 4.</ref>
 
 
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