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{{See also|صورة نمطية}}
[[ملف:David von Michelangelo.jpg|thumb|200px|''[[ميكيلانجيلو]]'s [[David (Michelangelo)|David]]'' is the [[Renaissance art|classical]] image of youthful male [[beauty]] in [[Western art]].]]
 
Masculinity has its roots in [[genetics]] (see [[Biology of gender (disambiguation)|gender]]).<ref>John Money, 'The concept of gender identity disorder in childhood and adolescence after 39 years', Journal of Sex and Marital Therapy 20 (1994): 163-77.</ref><ref>
Laura Stanton and Brenna Maloney, [http://www.washingtonpost.com/wp-dyn/content/graphic/2006/12/18/GR2006121800372.html 'The Perception of Pain',] ''Washington Post'', 19 December 2006.</ref> Therefore, while masculinity looks different in different cultures, there are common aspects to its definition across cultures.<ref>[[Donald Brown (anthropologist)|Donald Brown]], ''[[Human Universals]]''</ref> Sometimes gender scholars will use the phrase "[[hegemony|hegemonic]] masculinity" to distinguish the most dominant form of masculinity from other variants. In the mid-twentieth century United States, for example, [[جون وين]] might embody one form of masculinity, while [[ألبرت أينشتاين]] might be seen as masculine, but not in the same "hegemonic" fashion.
 
[[Machismo]] is a form of masculine culture. It includes assertiveness or standing up for one's rights, responsibility, selflessness, general code of ethics, sincerity, and respect.<ref>Mirande, Alfredo (1997). ''Hombres y Machos: Masculinity and Latino Culture'', p.72-74. ISBN 0-8133-3197-8.</ref>
 
Anthropology has shown that masculinity itself has [[social status]], just like wealth, [[Race (classification of human beings)|race]] and [[social class]]. In [[western culture]], for example, greater masculinity usually brings greater social status. Many English words such as ''virtue'' and ''virile'' (from the [[Indo-European]] root ''vir'' meaning ''man'') reflect this.<ref>{{cite web| title =Virtue (2009) | publisher =Merriam-Webster Online Dictionary | month = | year =2009 | url =http://www.merriam-webster.com/dictionary/virtue | accessdate =2009-06-08 }}</ref><ref>{{cite web| title =Virile (2009) | publisher =Merriam-Webster Online Dictionary | month = | year =2009 | url =http://www.merriam-webster.com/dictionary/virile | accessdate =2009-06-08 }}</ref> An association with physical and/or moral strength is implied. Masculinity is associated more commonly with adult men than with boys.
 
A great deal is now known about the development of masculine characteristics. The process of [[sexual differentiation]] specific to the reproductive system of ''Homo sapiens'' produces a female by default. The [[SRY gene]] on the [[كروموسوم واي]], however, interferes with the default process, causing a chain of events that, all things being equal, leads to [[testes]] formation, [[androgen]] production and a range of both pre-natal and post-natal hormonal effects covered by the terms ''masculinization'' or ''[[virilization]]''. Because masculinization redirects biological processes from the default female route, it is more precisely called ''[[defeminization]]''.
 
There is an extensive debate about how children develop [[هوية جندرية]].
 
In many cultures displaying characteristics not typical to one's gender may become a social problem for the individual. Among men, the exhibition of feminine behavior may be considered a sign of [[homosexuality]], while the same is for a woman who exhibits masculine behavior. Within [[sociology]] such labeling and conditioning is known as [[gender role|gender assumptions]] and is a part of [[socialization]] to better match a culture's [[mores]]. The corresponding social condemnation of excessive masculinity may be expressed in terms such as "[[machismo]]" or "[[testosterone poisoning]]."
 
The relative importance of the roles of socialization and genetics in the development of masculinity continues to be debated. While [[social conditioning]] obviously plays a role, it can also be observed that certain aspects of the masculine identity exist in almost all human cultures.
 
The historical development of gender role is addressed by such fields as [[behavioral genetics]], [[evolutionary psychology]], [[human ecology]] and [[sociobiology]]. All human [[culture]]s seem to encourage the development of gender roles, through [[literature]], [[costume]] and [[song]]. Some examples of this might include the epics of [[هوميروس]], the [[King Arthur]] tales in English, the [[Norm (philosophy)|normative]] commentaries of [[كونفوشيوس]] or biographical studies of [[محمد]]. More specialized treatments of masculinity may be found in works such as the ''[[البهاغافاد غيتا]]'' or [[bushido]]'s ''[[Hagakure]]''.
 
== Culture and gender roles ==
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