افتح القائمة الرئيسية

تغييرات

لا تغيير في الحجم ، ‏ قبل 3 سنوات
لا يوجد ملخص تحرير
The English naturalists [[Gilbert White]] and [[William Markwick]] reported the seasonal events of more than 400 plant and animal species, Gilbert White in [[Selborne]], Hampshire and William Markwick in [[Battle, Sussex]] over a 25-year period between 1768 and 1793. The data, reported in White's ''[[Natural History and Antiquities of Selborne]]''<ref name=white>White, G (1789) [[The Natural History and Antiquities of Selborne]]</ref> are reported as the earliest and latest dates for each event over 25 years; so annual changes cannot therefore be determined.
 
In Japan and China the time of blossoming of cherry and peach trees is associated with ancient festivals and some of these dates can be traced back to the eighth century. Such historical records may, in principle, be capable of providing estimates of climate at dates before instrumental records became available. For example, records of the harvest dates of the [[pinot noir]] [[عنب]] in [[منطقة بورجنديبورغندي]] have been used in an attempt to reconstruct spring–summer temperatures from 1370 to 2003;<ref name=Chuine>{{Cite journal| last1 = Chuine | first1 = I. | last2 = Yiou | first2 = P. | last3 = Viovy | first3 = N. | last4 = Seguin | first4 = B. | last5 = Daux | first5 = V. | last6 = Le Roy | first6 = Ladurie | year = 2004 | title = Grape ripening as a past climate indicator | url = http://www.cefe.cnrs.fr/fe/pdf/2004_Nature_432_289_290.pdf | format = PDF | journal = Nature | volume = 432 | issue = 7015| pages = 289–290 | doi = 10.1038/432289a | pmid = 15549085 |bibcode = 2004Natur.432..289C |archiveurl=http://web.archive.org/web/20060516044139/http://www.cefe.cnrs.fr/fe/pdf/2004_Nature_432_289_290.pdf|archivedate=2006-05-16}}</ref><ref name=Keenan2007>{{Cite journal| last1 = Keenan | first1 = D.J. | year = 2007 | title = Grape harvest dates are poor indicators of summer warmth | url = http://www.informath.org/pubs/TAC06a.pdf | format = PDF | journal = Theoretical and Applied Climatology | volume = 87 | issue = | pages = 255–256 | doi = 10.1007/s00704-006-0197-9 |bibcode = 2007ThApC..87..255K}}</ref> the reconstructed values during 1787–2000 have a correlation with Paris instrumental data of about 0.75.
 
== السجلات الحديثة ==