افتح القائمة الرئيسية

تغييرات

اصلاح وسائط قالب:مرجع كتاب
a bimonthly publication of the [[Foundation for Middle East Peace]]</ref> (ويشار لها عادة للتبسيط '''بالمستوطنات الإسرائيلية'''<ref>[http://www.qcea.org/wp-content/uploads/2012/08/bp-eusettlementtrade-version2-en-aug-2012.pdf EU Trade with Israeli Settlements], a briefing paper</ref>) أو '''المُغْتَصَبات''' كما يسميها الفلسطينيون <ref>[http://www.alqassam.ps/arabic/operations1.php?sub_operation=2 معارك وعمليات/اقتحام مغتصبات]</ref>، هي التجمعات السكانية الاستعمارية اليهودية التى بنيت على الأراضي التي إحتلتها توسعت عليها إسرائيل خلال [[حرب 1967|حرب عام 1967]] (نكسة حزيران).
 
في أوائل عام 2016، يستوطن حوالي 407 ألف مستوطن في الضفة الغربية <ref name="inn.co.il">{{هامش|http://www.inn.co.il/Articles/Article.aspx/14370}}</ref> و375 ألفا في القدس الشرقية،بالإضافة إلى 20 ألفا في الجولان السوري المحتل<ref>{{هامش|1=http://www.inn.co.il/Articles/Article.aspx/14370}}</ref>، وبلغت نسبة زيادة عدد المستوطنين في عام 2007 5.2% <ref>‏‏{{هامش|http://www.ynet.co.il/articles/0,7340,L-3496637,00.html}}</ref> وهو ضعف معدل الزيادة السكانية لعموم سكان إسرائيل <ref>{{هامش|http://www. name="inn.co.il"/Articles/Article.aspx/14370}}</ref>، ففي تموز (يونيو) 2012، وفقا لوزارة الداخلية الإسرائيلية، كان يعيش 350150 مستوطن يهودي في 121 مستوطنة معترف بها رسميا في الضفة الغربية، ويعيش 300 ألف إسرائيلي في مستوطنات في القدس الشرقية و20000 يعيشون في مستوطنات في هضبة الجولان.<ref>{{cite news| title=Population of Jewish settlements in West Bank up 15,000 in a year | url=http://www.guardian.co.uk/world/2012/jul/26/jewish-population-west-bank-up | location=London | work=The Guardian | first=Harriet | last=Sherwood | date=26 July 2012}}</ref><ref>{{cite web |title=Facts About Jewish Settlements in the West Bank |url=http://www.jewishvirtuallibrary.org/jsource/Peace/settlements.html}}</ref> تتراوح المستوطنات في طبيعتها بين المجتمعات الزراعية والقرى الحدودية إلى الضواحي والأحياء الحضرية. أكبر أربع مستوطنات هي [[موديعين عيليت]]، و[[معاليه أدوميم]]، و[[بيتار عيليت]] و[[مستوطنة أريئيل|أريئيل]]، وهي مستعمرات وصلت لحجم مدينة. أريئيل يقطنها 18000 صهيوني في حين أن بقية المستوطنات تتراوح بين 37000 إلى 55500 مستوطن لكل منها.
 
عبر التغيرات السياسية أزيلت بعض هذة المستوطنات التي كانت توجد في [[سيناء]] و[[قطاع غزة]]، حيث اخليت مستوطنات سيناء بعد [[معاهدة السلام المصرية الإسرائيلية]] عام 1979، واخليت مستوطنات القطاع في عام 2005 بموجب [[خطة فك الارتباط الأحادية الإسرائيلية|خطة فك الارتباط الأحادية من جانب اسرائيل]]. فى المجمل، قامت إسرائيل بتفكيك 18 مستوطنة في [[شبه جزيرة سيناء]] في عام 1982، وكل المستوطنات في قطاع غزة (21 مستوطنة) و 4 مستوطنات في الضفة الغربية في عام 2005، <ref name="West Bank">
* {{citeمرجع bookكتاب|urlمسار=http://books.google.com/books?id=ZpYvMW4PYuMC&pg=PA363&dq|titleالعنوان=The Accidental Empire: Israel and the Birth of the Settlements, 1967–1977|authorالمؤلف=Gershom Gorenberg|yearسنة=2007|publisherالناشر=Macmillan|pageالصفحة=363 So argued the government of Israel before the country's Supreme Court in the spring of 2005, defending its decision to dismantle all Israeli settlements in the Gaza Strip and four in the northern West Bank.}}</ref> ولكنها لا تزال تعمل على توسيع مستوطناتها وانشاء مستوطنات جديدة في الضفة الغربية، <ref>[[Anthony Cordesman]], Jennifer Moravitz, [http://books.google.com.au/books?id=-dRUGqwLSE4C&pg=PA433 ''The Israeli-Palestinian war: escalating to nowhere,''] Greenwood Publishing Group, Center for Strategic and International Studies, 2005 p.432.:'Between 1993 and 1999, settlers established 42 "unofficial" settlements, only four of which were subsequently dismantled. More than a dozen new settlements were established between the 1998 Wye Accord [sic: it's the Wye River '''Memorandum''', but Oslo '''Accords'''] and the outbreak of war, although former Prime Minister Netanyahu supposedly{{who|تاريخ=أبريل 2014}} promised Clinton that he would halt expansion.' p.433.</ref><ref>[[Zeev Maoz]] [http://books.google.com.au/books?id=bWEV__6BYPgC&pg=PA472 ''Defending the Holy Land: a critical analysis of Israel's security & foreign policy,''] University of Michigan Press, 2006 p.472: 'As can be seen from the table, in 1993 there were about 110,000 settlers in the occupied territories. In 2001 there were 195,000 (Note that the number of settlers increased by 18 percent during the [[Al Aqsa Intifada]]). This was an increase of 73 percent'</ref><ref>[[Marwan Bishara]], [http://books.google.com.au/books?id=TiW3wW5dqPIC&pg=PA133 ''Palestine/Israel: peace or apartheid''] Zed Books, 2003 p.133: 'The settlement expansion has continued unabated...and accelerated after the launch of the peace process.’ p.133.</ref><ref>Baylis Thomas, [http://books.google.com.au/books?id=R2nKI4UcRr4C&pg=PA137 ''The Dark Side of Zionism: Israel's Quest for Security Through Dominance''] Lexington Books, 3011 p.137:'Six years after the agreement there were more Israeli settlements, less freedom of movement, and worse economic conditions." Settlement building and roads for Jewish settlers proceeded at a frenetic pace under Barak – the classic Zionist maneuver of creating of facts on the ground to preclude a Palestinian state.’ p.137.</ref><ref>{{Citeمرجع bookكتاب|lastالأخير=Barahona|firstالأول=Ana|titleالعنوان=Bearing Witness - Eight weeks in Palestine|publisherالناشر=Metete|locationمكان=London| isbnالرقم المعياري= 978-1-908099-02-0|yearسنة=2013|pageالصفحة=49}}</ref> بالرغم من إدانة 158 دولة من أصل 166 لهذة التجمعات الاستعمارية في تصويت ب[[الأمم المتحدة]]، وإدانة 160 دولة من أصل 171 دولة في تصويت آخر بنفس المنظمة.<ref name=Aussie>{{cite news|last=Swan|first=Jonathan|title=Tony Abbott quietly shifts UN position to support Israeli settlements, upsetting Palestinians|url=http://www.smh.com.au/national/tony-abbott-quietly-shifts-un-position-to-support-israeli-settlements-upsetting-palestinians-20131124-2y434.html|newspaper=The Sydney Morning Herald|date=25 Nov 2013}}</ref>
حاليا تستمر إسرائيل بالتوسع بالإستيطان في [[الضفة الغربية]] و [[القدس الشرقية]]، و[[مرتفعات الجولان]].
يعتبر السواد الأعظم من "[[المجتمع الدولي]]" المستوطنات الإسرائيلية في "[[الأراضي الفلسطينية]]" أنها خرق للقانون الدولي <ref name=ic>
* {{Cite journal|title=Prolonged Military Occupation: The Israeli-Occupied Territories Since 1967|last=Roberts|first=Adam|author-link=Adam Roberts (scholar)|journal=The American Journal of International Law|volume=84|issue=1|publisher=American Society of International Law|pages=85–86|quote=The international community has taken a critical view of both deportations and settlements as being contrary to international law. General Assembly resolutions have condemned the deportations since 1969, and have done so by overwhelming majorities in recent years. Likewise, they have consistently deplored the establishment of settlements, and have done so by overwhelming majorities throughout the period (since the end of 1976) of the rapid expansion in their numbers. The Security Council has also been critical of deportations and settlements; and other bodies have viewed them as an obstacle to peace, and illegal under international law.}}
* {{Citeمرجع bookكتاب|titleالعنوان=The Italian Yearbook of International Law|volume=14|yearسنة=2005|editor1-last=Conforti|editor1-first=Benedetto|editor2-last=Bravo|editor2-first=Luigi|firstالأول=Marco|lastالأخير=Pertile|chapter='Legal Consequences of the Construction of a Wall in the Occupied Palestinian Territory': A Missed Opportunity for International Humanitarian Law?|publisherالناشر=Martinus Nijhoff Publishers|isbnالرقم المعياري=978-90-04-15027-0|pageالصفحة=141|quote=the establishment of the Israeli settlements in the Occupied Palestinian Territory has been considered illegal by the international community and by the majority of legal scholars.}}
* {{Cite journal|journal=International Journal of Constitutional Law|title=Israel: The security barrier—between international law, constitutional law, and domestic judicial review|publisher=Oxford University Press|volume=4|last=Barak-Erez|first=Daphne|author-link=Daphne Barak Erez|year=2006|page=548|quote=The real controversy hovering over all the litigation on the security barrier concerns the fate of the Israeli settlements in the occupied territories. Since 1967, Israel has allowed and even encouraged its citizens to live in the new settlements established in the territories, motivated by religious and national sentiments attached to the history of the Jewish nation in the land of Israel. This policy has also been justified in terms of security interests, taking into consideration the dangerous geographic circumstances of Israel before 1967 (where Israeli areas on the Mediterranean coast were potentially threatened by Jordanian control of the West Bank ridge). The international community, for its part, has viewed this policy as patently illegal, based on the provisions of the Fourth Geneva Convention that prohibit moving populations to or from territories under occupation.|issue=3}}
* {{Citeمرجع bookكتاب|chapter=Self-determination and population transfer|lastالأخير=Drew|firstالأول=Catriona|titleالعنوان=Human rights, self-determination and political change in the occupied Palestinian territories|volume=52|series=International studies in human rights|editor-last=Bowen|editor-first=Stephen|publisherالناشر=Martinus Nijhoff Publishers|yearسنة=1997|isbnالرقم المعياري=978-90-411-0502-8|pagesالصفحات=151–152|quote=It can thus clearly be concluded that the transfer of Israeli settlers into the occupied territories violates not only the laws of belligerent occupation but the Palestinian right of self-determination under international law. The question remains, however, whether this is of any practical value. In other words, given the view of the international community that the Israeli settlements are illegal under the law if belligerent occupation...}}
* {{Cite web|title=The situation of workers of the occupied Arab territories|author=[[International Labour Organization]]|year=2005|url=http://www.ilo.org/public/english/standards/relm/ilc/ilc93/pdf/rep-i-ax.pdf|page=14|quote=The international community considers Israeli settlements within the occupied territories illegal and in breach of, inter alia, United Nations Security Council resolution 465 of 1 March 1980 calling on Israel "to dismantle the existing settlements and in particular to cease, on an urgent basis, the establishment, construction and planning of settlements in the Arab territories occupied since 1967, including Jerusalem".}}
* Civilian and military presence as strategies of territorial control: The Arab-Israel conflict, David Newman, Political Geography Quarterly Volume 8, Issue 3, July 1989, Pages 215–227
* {{cite news|url=http://news.bbc.co.uk/2/hi/middle_east/4714611.stm|title=What next for Gaza and West Bank?|publisher=BBC
|quote=Most Israelis support the pullout, but some feel the government has given in to Palestinian militant groups, and worry that further withdrawals will follow. Palestinian critics point out that Gaza will remain under Israeli control, and that they are being denied a political say in the disengagement process.|date=30 August 2005|accessdate=5 January 2010}}
* {{citeمرجع bookكتاب|urlمسار=http://books.google.com/books?id=o2Va21wfwvIC&pg=PA514|titleالعنوان=Yearbook of the United Nations 2005|pageالصفحة=514|yearسنة=2007|publisherالناشر=United Nations Publications|quote=The Israeli Government was preparing to implement an unprecedented initiative: the disengagement of all Israeli civilians and forces from the Gaza Strip and the dismantling of four settlements in the northern West Bank.}}
* {{citeمرجع bookكتاب|urlمسار=http://books.google.com/books?id=-D9AxJlXz64C&pg=PA58|titleالعنوان=Land Or Peace|authorالمؤلف=Yael Yishai|pageالصفحة=58|yearسنة=1987|publisherالناشر=Hoover Press|quote=During 1982 Israel's government stuck to its territorial policy in word and deed. All the settlements in Sinai were evacuated in accordance with the Camp David Accords, but settlement activity in the other territories continued uninterrupted. A few days after the final withdrawal from Sinai had been completed, Begin announced that he would introduce a resolution barring future governments from dismantling settlements, even as a result of peace negotiations.}}</ref> ويظهر ذلك على وجه الخصوص بتبني مجلس الأمن في [[أمم متحدة|الأمم المتحدة]] [[قرار مجلس الأمن الدولي رقم 448|للقرار 448]] في [[مارس]] عام [[1979]] الذي اعتبرها غير قانونية. وحاليا يعتبر "[[المجتمع الدولي]]" الأحياء الإسرائيلية في [[القدس الشرقية]] والمجتمعات المحلية في [[مرتفعات الجولان]]، والمناطق التي تم [[ضم عسكري|ضتمها]] إسرائيل أيضا مستوطنات ولا يعترف بالضم الإسرائيلي لهذه الأراضي.<ref>Donald MacIntyre, [http://www.independent.co.uk/news/world/middle-east/the-big-question-what-are-israeli-settlements-and-why-are-they-coming-under-pressure-1692515.html The Big Question: What are Israeli settlements, and why are they coming under pressure?], ''[[ذي إندبندنت]]'' 29 May 2009</ref> وصرحت [[محكمة العدل الدولية]] أيضا بأن هذه المستوطنات غير شرعية في [[رأي استشاري]] لعام 2004. في نيسان (أبريل) 2012، أكد [[بان كي مون]] السكرتير العام للامم المتحدة ردا على تحركات من جانب إسرائيل لإضفاء شرعية على [[البؤر الاستيطانية الإسرائيلية]]، أن كل النشاط الاستيطاني غير شرعي، و "يتعارض مع التزامات إسرائيل تجاه [[خارطة طريق السلام|خارطة الطريق]] ودعوات [[اللجنة الرباعية حول الشرق الأوسط|اللجنة الرباعية]] المتكررة للأطراف بالامتناع عن الاستفزازات".<ref>Natasha Mozgovaya, [[رويترز]] and The [[أسوشيتد برس]],[http://www.haaretz.com/news/diplomacy-defense/palestinians-call-on-un-to-stop-israeli-settlement-legalization-1.426625 Palestinians call on UN to stop Israeli settlement legalization], at [[Haaretz]], 26 April 2012.</ref> وتقدم الاتحاد الأوروبي والولايات المتحدة بانتقادات مماثلة.<ref>{{cite news|url=http://www.timesofisrael.com/leaders-blast-government-move-to-legalize-three-west-bank-outposts/|title=World leaders blast legalization of three West Bank outposts|author=Michal Shmulovich|date=24 April 2012|newspaper=The Times of Israel|accessdate=29 April 2012}}</ref><ref>{{cite news|url=http://www.timesofisrael.com/eu-urges-israel-to-reverse-its-authorization-of-three-west-bank-outposts/|title=EU urges Israel to reverse its authorization of three West Bank outposts|author=Michal Shmulovich|date=26 April 2012|newspaper=The Times of Israel|accessdate=29 April 2012}}</ref> وتجادل إسرائيل في موقف "[[المجتمع الدولي]]" والحجج القانونية التي يستند اليها فى إعلان هذة المستوطنات غير شرعية.<ref name="MFA_FAQ_settlements">{{Cite web| url= http://www.mfa.gov.il/MFA/Peace+Process/Guide+to+the+Peace+Process/Israel-+the+Conflict+and+Peace-+Answers+to+Frequen.htm#settlements| title=Israel, the Conflict and Peace: Answers to frequently asked questions|تاريخ=نوفمبر 2007| publisher=[[Ministry of Foreign Affairs (Israel)|Israel Ministry of Foreign Affairs]]| quote=Are Israeli settlements legal?}}</ref>
 
كثيرا ما انتقد الفلسطينيون المنخرطون في [[عملية السلام الفلسطينية الاسرائيلية|عملية السلام]] مع إسرائيل،<ref>{{Cite web|url=http://www.ft.com/cms/s/0/7ce1dc86-82e3-11e0-b97c-00144feabdc0.html|title=Palestinians condemn settlements plan|publisher=[[فاينانشال تايمز]]|date=20 May 2011}}</ref> وأطراف دولية أخري تشمل [[الأمم المتحدة]]، <ref name="BBCObstacle">{{Cite news|url=http://news.bbc.co.uk/2/hi/middle_east/8364815.stm|title=Israeli settlement plan denounced|publisher=BBC|date=8 November 2009|accessdate=16 March 2010}}</ref> و[[روسيا]]، <ref>{{Cite news|url=http://en.rian.ru/russia/20111102/168365668.html |title=Russia urges Israel to halt settlement construction|publisher=RIA Novosti|date=2 November 2011|accessdate=7 June 2012}}</ref> و[[المملكة المتحدة]]، <ref>{{Cite news|url=http://www.haaretz.com/hasen/spages/1125583.html|title=Britain: Israeli settlements are 'illegal' and 'obstacle' to peace|date=4 November 2009|publisher=[[Haaretz]]|accessdate=16 March 2010}}</ref> و[[فرنسا]]، <ref>{{Cite news|url=http://www.business-standard.com/article/news-ians/france-condemns-israel-over-settlement-building-decision-114032100073_1.html|title=France condemns Israel over settlement building decision|date=21 March 2014|publisher=[[Business Standard]]|accessdate=5 April 2014}}</ref> و[[الاتحاد الأوروبي]]، <ref>{{Cite news|url=http://af.reuters.com/article/egyptNews/idAFLDE62E1M320100315|publisher=Reuters|title=EU's Ashton SAYS Israeli settlement plans hurt peace moves|accessdate=16 March 2010|date=15 March 2010}}</ref> والولايات المتحدة <ref name="BBCObstacle"/> وجود المستوطنات الحالية و قيام إسرائيل بالتوسع المستمر فيها وبناء بؤر استيطانية جديدة باعتبارها عقبة أمام عملية السلام بدون اتخاذ أى رد فعل قوي تجاه إسرائيل أكثر من الشجب والادانة.