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'''Buruliقرحة ulcer'''بورولي، (alsoوتعرف knownأيضاً asباسم the"قرحة '''Bairnsdaleبيرنسديل" ulcer''',أو '''Searls"قرحة ulcer''',سيرلز" or '''Daintree ulcer'''<ref name="Andrews">{{مرجع كتاب|author=James, William D.; Berger, Timothy G.; et al. |title=Andrews' Diseases of the Skin: clinical Dermatology |publisher=Saunders Elsevier |location= |year=2006 |pages=340 |isbn=0-7216-2921-0 }}</ref><ref name="Bolognia">{{مرجع كتاب|author=Rapini, Ronald P.; Bolognia, Jean L.; Jorizzo, Joseph L. |title=Dermatology: 2-Volume Set |publisher=Mosby |location=St. Louis |year=2007 |at=Chapter 74 |isbn=1-4160-2999-0 }}</ref><ref>{{Cite journal|author=Lavender CJ, Senanayake SN, Fyfe JA, ''et al.'' |title=First case of ''Mycobacterium ulcerans'' disease (Bairnsdale or Buruli ulcer) acquired in New South Wales |journal=Med. J. Aust. |volume=186 |issue=2 |pages=62–3 |date=January 2007 |pmid=17223764 |url=http://www.mja.com.au/public/issues/186_02_150107/lav10784_fm.html}}</ref>) is anهي [[عدوى]] causedتنجم byعن ''[[Mycobacteriumالمتفطرة ulceransالمقرحة]]''. <ref name=WHO2013>{{Cite web|title=Buruli ulcer (''Mycobacterium ulcerans'' infection) Fact sheet N°199|url=http://www.who.int/mediacentre/factsheets/fs199/en/|work=World Health Organization|accessdate=23 February 2014|date=June 2013}}</ref> Theتتميز earlyالمرحة stageالمبكرة ofمن theالعدوى infectionبوجود is characterised by a painless [[noduleعُقيدَة (medicineتدرن)|nodule]] orأو areaتورم of swelling.<ref name=WHO2013/> Thisقد noduleتتحول can turn into anإلى [[قرحة]]. <ref name=WHO2013/> Theقد ulcerتكون mayالقرحة beمن largerالداخل insideأكبر thanمنها atعلى theسطح surfaceالجلد of the skin.<ref name=Nak2013/> Theوقد ulcerتحاط canالقرحة beبعُقيدات surroundedأو byورم. swelling.<ref name=Nak2013/> Asكلما theاشتدت diseaseالإصابة، worsens,تزيد boneإمكانية canإصابة beالعظام infected.<ref name=WHO2013/> Buruliويشار ulcersإلى mostأن commonlyالإصابة affectsبقرحة theبورولي armsأكثر orشيوعاً في الذراعين legsوالساقين.<ref name=WHO2013/>كما Feverأن isوجود uncommon[[حمى]] مرافقة للإصابة أكبر غير مألوف. <ref name=WHO2013/>
 
== المسببات ==
قرحة بورولي، وتعرف أيضاً باسم "قرحة بيرنسديل" أو "قرحة
 
'''Buruli ulcer''' (also known as the '''Bairnsdale ulcer''', '''Searls ulcer''', or '''Daintree ulcer'''<ref name="Andrews">{{مرجع كتاب|author=James, William D.; Berger, Timothy G.; et al. |title=Andrews' Diseases of the Skin: clinical Dermatology |publisher=Saunders Elsevier |location= |year=2006 |pages=340 |isbn=0-7216-2921-0 }}</ref><ref name="Bolognia">{{مرجع كتاب|author=Rapini, Ronald P.; Bolognia, Jean L.; Jorizzo, Joseph L. |title=Dermatology: 2-Volume Set |publisher=Mosby |location=St. Louis |year=2007 |at=Chapter 74 |isbn=1-4160-2999-0 }}</ref><ref>{{Cite journal|author=Lavender CJ, Senanayake SN, Fyfe JA, ''et al.'' |title=First case of ''Mycobacterium ulcerans'' disease (Bairnsdale or Buruli ulcer) acquired in New South Wales |journal=Med. J. Aust. |volume=186 |issue=2 |pages=62–3 |date=January 2007 |pmid=17223764 |url=http://www.mja.com.au/public/issues/186_02_150107/lav10784_fm.html}}</ref>) is an [[عدوى]] caused by ''[[Mycobacterium ulcerans]]''.<ref name=WHO2013>{{Cite web|title=Buruli ulcer (''Mycobacterium ulcerans'' infection) Fact sheet N°199|url=http://www.who.int/mediacentre/factsheets/fs199/en/|work=World Health Organization|accessdate=23 February 2014|date=June 2013}}</ref> The early stage of the infection is characterised by a painless [[nodule (medicine)|nodule]] or area of swelling.<ref name=WHO2013/> This nodule can turn into an [[قرحة]].<ref name=WHO2013/> The ulcer may be larger inside than at the surface of the skin.<ref name=Nak2013/> The ulcer can be surrounded by swelling.<ref name=Nak2013/> As the disease worsens, bone can be infected.<ref name=WHO2013/> Buruli ulcers most commonly affects the arms or legs.<ref name=WHO2013/> Fever is uncommon.<ref name=WHO2013/>
 
<!-- Cause -->
 
''M. ulcerans'' releases a toxin known as [[mycolactone]], which decreases [[تثبيط مناعي]] and results in tissue [[استماتة]].<ref name=WHO2013/> Bacteria from the same family also cause [[سل]] and [[جذام (مرض)]] (''[[متفطرة سلية]]'' and ''[[متفطرة جذامية]]'', respectively).<ref name=WHO2013/> How the disease is spread is not known.<ref name=WHO2013/> Sources of water may be involved in the spread.<ref name=Nak2013/> As of 2013 there is no effective vaccine.<ref name=WHO2013/><ref name=Ein2011/>
 
==العلاج==
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If people are treated early, [[مضاد حيوي]]s for eight weeks are effective in 80%.<ref name=WHO2013/> The treatment often includes the medications [[ريفامبيسين]] and [[ستربتوميسين]].<ref name=WHO2013/> [[كلاريثروميسين]] or [[moxifloxacin]] are sometimes used instead of streptomycin.<ref name=WHO2013/> Other treatments may include [[جراحة]] the ulcer.<ref name=WHO2013/><ref name=Siz2006>{{Cite journal| author=Sizaire V, Nackers F, Comte E, Portaels F | title=''Mycobacterium ulcerans'' infection: control, diagnosis, and treatment | journal=Lancet Infect Dis |year=2006 | volume=6 | issue=5 | pages=288–296 | pmid=16631549 | doi=10.1016/S1473-3099(06)70464-9 | url=http://linkinghub.elsevier.com/retrieve/pii/S1473-3099(06)70464-9 }}</ref> After the infection heals, the area typically has a scar.<ref name=Ein2011>{{Cite journal|author=Einarsdottir T, Huygen K |title=Buruli ulcer |journal=Hum Vaccin |volume=7 |issue=11 |pages=1198–203 |date=November 2011 |pmid=22048117 |doi=10.4161/hv.7.11.17751 |url=http://www.landesbioscience.com/journals/hv/abstract.php?id=17751}}</ref>
 
==عن المرض==
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قرحة بورولي أكثر شيوعاً في مناطق [[أفريقيا جنوب الصحراء]] الريفية، خاصة في [[ساحل العاج]]؛ لكن يمكن أن تصيب الأشخاص في مناطق آسيا وغرب المحيط الهادي والأمريكيتين. <ref name=WHO2013/> هذا وقد وقعت حالات في أكثر من 32 دولة. <ref name=Nak2013>{{Cite journal|last=Nakanaga|first=K|author2=Yotsu, RR |author3=Hoshino, Y |author4=Suzuki, K |author5=Makino, M |author6= Ishii, N |title=Buruli ulcer and mycolactone-producing mycobacteria.|journal=Japanese journal of infectious diseases|year=2013|volume=66|issue=2|pages=83–8|pmid=23514902}}</ref> تسجل حوالي 5000 - 6000 حالة سنوياً <ref name=WHO2013/> كما تصاب بعض الحيوانات بهذا المرض أيضاً كالإنسان <ref name=WHO2013/> كان [[آلبرت روسكين كوك[[ أول من وصف قرحة بورولي عام 1897 <ref name=Nak2013/>.
 
 
==طالع أيضاً==
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