افتح القائمة الرئيسية

بوصلة الرياح الكلاسيكية

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المحتوى هنا ينقصه الاستشهاد بمصادر. يرجى إيراد مصادر موثوق بها. أي معلومات غير موثقة يمكن التشكيك بها وإزالتها. (ديسمبر 2018)
برج الرياح في أثينا، كما أعيد تخيله في 1762.

في العالم اليوناني الروماني القديم، بوصلة الرياح الكلاسيكية كانت الأسم لمناطق ونقاط الاتجاه الجغرافي والتوجه، المرتبطة مع الرياح كما تصورها اليونان والرومان القدماء. عادةً ما كانت وردة بوصلة الرياح القديمة تحتوي على اثني عشر منطقة رياح، وبالتالي اثنتي عشرة نقطة اتجاه، تتقلص أحيانًا إلى ثمانية أو تزيد إلى أربعة وعشرين.

 كان يُنظَر إليها في الأصل كفرع من علم الأرصاد الجوية، لكن وردة بوصلة الرياح ليس لها سوى علاقة مؤقتة بالملاحة الفعلية. في نهاية المطاف، اُستبدلت وردة بوصلة الرياح الكلاسيكية ذات 12 نقطة بوردة بوصلة الرياح الحديثة ذات (8 نقاط و 16 نقطة و 32 نقطة)، والتي اعتمدها البحارة خلال العصور الوسطى.

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المصادرعدل

المصادر الأساسية:

  • Pierre d'Ailly (1410) Ymago Mundi (1930 French trans. E. Buron, Paris: Maisonnenve)
  • Aulus Gellius (159 CE) Noctes Atticae, 1853 ed. Leipzig: Teubner, vol.1) (English: 1795 Below trans.The Attic nights of Aulus Gellius, London: Johnson vol.1)
  • Agathemerus (c. 250 CE) Hypotyposis Geographiae in 1697 Geographica Antiqua, Leiden. p.178ff (For another version, see Geographiae Informatio in Müller (1861) Geographi Graeci Minores, vol. 2, Paris: Firmin-Didot p.471ff. See also Diller (1975).
  • Anonymous (pseudo-Aristotle), De Mundo at Alexandrum, 1854 ed.Aristotelis Opera Omnia, Graece et Latine, Vol. 3, Paris: Firmin-Didot. p.627 (Engl. trans. E.S. Forster, 1914, in The Works of Aristotle vol. 3,online txt)
  • Anonymous (pseudo-Aristotle), Ventorum Situs et Adpellationes, 1857 ed.Aristotelis Opera Omnia, Graece et Latine, Vol. IV Paris: Firmin-Didot. p.45-46. (Engl. trans. E.S. Forster, 1913, in The Works of Aristotle (vol. 6) online txt)
  • Aristotle Meteorologia, 1854 ed.Aristotelis Opera Omnia, Graece et Latine, Vol. 3, Paris: Firmin-Didot. (p.588ff (Engl. E.B. Webster, online)(Engl. trans. E.S. Forster, 1914, in The Works of Aristotle vol. 3,online txt)
  • Einhard (c. 830 CE) Vita Karoli Imperatoris (1882 ed., Freiburg: Mohr online; (S.E. Turner 1880 trans, Life of Charlemagne, New York: American Book Company. online)
  • Georgius Agricola (1556) De re metallica 1657 edition, Basil: Konig. online (Hoover and Hoover 1912 translation, Mining Magazine, vol. 12. Reprinted Dover, 1950).
  • Hesiod (c. 700 BCE) Theogonia (Paley ed. 1861, Epics of Hesiod, London: Bell online).
  • Hippocrates, De aere, aquis et locis libellus, (Multi-language (Greek, Latin, French, English) translation, 1881 Hippocrates on Airs, Waters, Places. London: Wyman & Sons. online)
  • Homer (c. 800 BCE) The Iliad (Greek & W.C. Green transl., 1884, London: Longmans, vol. 1, vol. 2)
  • Homer (c. 800 BCE) The Odyssey (Bks I-XII, Greek & G.H. Palmer trans. 1895, Boston:Houghton Mifflin. online)
  • Isidore of Seville (c. 620 CE), Etymologiarum, (Migne, 1850, editor, Patrologia: Sancti Isidori Hispalensis Episcopi opera omnia, vol.3 & 4, Paris. online (Eng. trans. P. Throop (2005) Isidore of Seville's Etymologies: Complete English Translation. Charlotte, Virginia: Medieval MS.)
  • John of Damascus (8th century, CE) "Orthodoxou Pisteos/De Fide Orthodoxa" (As published in J.P. Migne, 1864, editors, Patrologiæ Graeca, vol. 94: Joannis Damascene. Paris. p.796ff
  • Pliny the Elder (c. 77 CE) Naturalis Historiae. (Latin: Mayhoff ed., 1906, Leipzig: Teubner, vol. 1) (English: John Bostock and Henry Thomas Riley transl., 1855, The Natural History of Pliny. London: H.G. Bohn. vol 1. (Bks 1 – 5), vol.4 (Bks 18-23)
  • Seneca the Younger (c. 65 CE) Naturales quaestiones, (Bks 1-7, 1819 ed., Göttingen: Vandenhoek. online(Trans., T. Lodge, 1620, Works, both Moral and Natural. London p.759ff)
  • Strabo (c. 7 BCE) The Geography of Strabo (Hamilton and Falconer transl., 1856-57. London: Bohn. vol.1, vol.2, vol.3)
  • Theophrastus (c. 300 BCE) De Signes and De Venti (J.G. Wood translation, 1894 in J.G. Wood and G.J. Symons, editor, Theophrastus of Eresus on Winds and Weather Signs. London: Stanford. online). For a different translation (with Greek text), "Concerning Weather Signs", in A. Hort trans. (Loeb edition), 1916,Theophrastus, Enquiry into Plants and Minor works on Odoùrs and Weather signs", Vol. II. p.391)
  • Virgil (c. 29 BCE) Georgics (J.Martyn trans., 1811 ed., London: Dutton online)
  • Vitruvius (c. 15 BCE) De Architectura Libri Decem (1892 ed., Leipzig: Holtze online) (M.H. Morgan 1914 translation as The Ten Books on Architecture, Cambridge, Mass: Harvard University Press. online)
  • Müller, C.F.W. (1855–61) Geographi Graeci Minores. Paris: Firmin-Didot. vol.1, vol.2

المصادر الثانوية:

  • Aczel, A. D. (2001) The Riddle of the Compass: the invention that changed the world. New York: Harcourt.
  • Brown, C.H. (1983) "Where do Cardinal Direction Terms Come From?", Anthropological Linguistics, Vol. 25 (2), p. 121-61.
  • Brown, L.A. (1949) The Story of Maps. 1979 edition, New York: Dover.
  • Bunbury, E.H. (1879) A History of Ancient Geography among the Greeks and Romans: from the earliest ages till the fall of the Roman Empire. New York: Murray. vol. 1, vol.2
  • D'Avezac, M.A.P. (1874) Aperçus historiques sur la rose des vents: lettre à Monsieur Henri Narducci. Rome: Civelli online
  • D'Avezac, M.A.P. (1888) "Le Ravennate et son exposé cosmographique", Bulletin de la Société Normande de Géographie. Rouen: Cagniard offprint
  • Diller, A. (1975) "Agathemerus, Sketch of Geography", Greek, Roman and Byzantine Studies, Vol. 16, p. 60-66
  • Falconer, T. (1811) "French Translation of Strabo" Quarterly Review, Vol. 5 (May), p.274-302
  • Gosselin, M. (1805) "Observations préliminaires et générales", Géographie de Strabon, Vol. 1. Paris: Imperiale. online
  • Humboldt, A.v. (1851) Cosmos: a sketch of a physical description of the universe London: Bohn. vol. 3
  • Hutchison, G. (1843) A Treatise on the Causes and Principles of Meteorological Phenomena. Glasgow: Archibald & Fullarton. online
  • Lais, P. Giuseppe (1894) "Monumento Greco-Latino di una Rosa Classical Dodecimale in Vaticano" Pubblicazioni della Specola Vaticana, vol. 4. Turin: Artigianelli. online
  • Lettinck, P. (1999) Aristotle's 'Meteorology' and its reception in the Arab world: with an edition and translation of Ibn Suwār's 'Treatise on Meteorological Phenomena' and Ibn Bājja's 'Commentary on the Meteorology'. Leiden: Brill.
  • Lorimer, W.L. (1925) Some Notes on the Text of pseudo-Aristotle "De Mundo" Oxford University Press.
  • Malte-Brun, Conrad (1824) Universal Geography: Or a description of all parts of the world, Boston: Wells and Lilly. vol. 1, vol. 6
  • Rosen, H.B. (1991) "Some Thoughts on the System of Designation of the Cardinal Points in Ancient Semitic Languages", in A.S. Kaye, editor, Semitic Studies: in honor of Wolf Leslau, Vol. II. Wiesbaden: Harrassowitz. p. 1337-44.
  • Skeat, W.W. (1882)An Etymological Dictionary of the English language. Oxford: Clarendon. online
  • Taylor, E.G. R. (1937) "The 'De Ventis' of Matthew Paris", Imago Mundi, vol. 2, p. 23-26.
  • Thomson, J. Oliver (1948) History of Ancient Geography, Biblo & Tannen.
  • Thompson, D'Arcy Wentworth (1918) "The Greek Winds", The Classical Review, Vol. 32 (3) p.49-55
  • Uhden, R. (1936) "Die antiken Grundlagen de mittelalterlichen Seekarten", Imago Mundi, Vol. 1, (1935), pp. 1–19
  • Valpy, F.E.J. (1852) A Manual of Latin Etymology as ultimately derived, with but few exceptions, from the Greek Language. 2nd ed., London: Longman. online
  • Valpy, F.E.J. (1860) The Etymology of the words of the Greek language London: Longman, &tc. online
  • Ward, C.R. (1894) "Current Notes: Names of the Winds", American Meteorological Journal, Vol. 11, p.67-69
  • Wood, J.G. (1894) "Introduction and Appendix on the Number, Direction and Nomenclature of the Winds in Classical and Later Times" in Wood and Stanford, editors, Theophrastus of Eresus on Winds and Weather Signs. London: Stanford. p.77-97